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Dong Ryul Ko 9 Articles
Causative Substance and Time of Mortality Presented to Emergency Department Following Acute Poisoning: 2014-2018 National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS)
Hyeonjae Lee, Minhong Choa, Eunah Han, Dong Ryul Ko, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Junho Cho, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):65-71.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.65
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of acute fatal poisoning and the time of death by analyzing the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of South Korea. Methods: The NEDIS data from 2014 to 2018 excluding non-medical visits were used for this study. The patients with acute poisoning were extracted using diagnostic codes. The toxic substances were classified into pharmaceuticals, pesticides, gases, artificial poisonous substances, and natural toxic substances. Patients were classified according to the time of death, place of death, and region. In each case, the most causative substances of poisoning were identified. Results: There were 380,531 patients including poisoning-related diagnoses, of which 4,148 (1.1%) died, and the WHO age-standardized mortality rate was 4.8 per 100,000. Analysis of 2,702 death patients whose primary diagnosis was acute poisoning, the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides (62%), followed by therapeutic drugs, gas, and artificial toxic substances. Herbicides were the most common pesticides at 64.5%. The proportion of mortality by time, hyperacute (<6 h) 27.9%, acute (6-24 h) 32.6%, subacute (1-7 d) 29.7%, and delayed period (>7 d) were 9.8%. Conclusion: This study suggests that the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides, and 60% of deaths occurred within 24 hours. The 71% of mortality from pesticides occurred within 6-24 hours, but mortality from gas was mostly within 6 hours. According to the geographic region, the primary cause of poisoning death was varied to pesticides or pharmaceuticals.

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  • A Novel Method for Medical Predictive Models in Small Data Using Out-of-Distribution Data and Transfer Learning
    Inyong Jeong, Yeongmin Kim, Nam-Jun Cho, Hyo-Wook Gil, Hwamin Lee
    Mathematics.2024; 12(2): 237.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Machine Learning-Based Prediction Models of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning
    Yeongmin Kim, Minsu Chae, Namjun Cho, Hyowook Gil, Hwamin Lee
    Mathematics.2022; 10(24): 4633.     CrossRef
Systematic review for economic benefit of poison control center
Eunah Han, Hyuna Hwang, Gina Yu, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Je Sung You, Minhong Choa, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.1
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the socio-economic benefits of the poison control center (PCC) and to assess whether telephone counseling at the poison control center affects the frequency of emergency room visits, hospitalization, and length of stay of patients with acute poisoning. Methods: The authors conducted a medical literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts for eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality using a standardized tool. Key results such as the cost-benefit ratio, hospital stay days, unnecessary emergency room visits or hospitalizations, and reduced hospital charges were extracted from the studies. When meta-analysis was possible, it was performed using RevMan software (RevMan version 5.4). Results: Among 299 non-duplicated studies, 19 were relevant to the study questions. The cost-benefit ratios of PCC showed a wide range from 0.76 to 36 (average 6.8) according to the level of the medical expense of each country and whether the study included intentional poisoning. PCC reduced unnecessary visits to healthcare facilities. PCC consultation shortened the length of hospital stay by 1.82 (95% CI, 1.07-2.57) days. Conclusion: The systematic review and meta-analysis support the hypothesis that the PCC operation is cost-beneficial. However, when implementing the PCC concept in Korea in the future, it is necessary to prepare an institutional framework to ensure a costeffective model.

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  • 2022 Annual Report of the Seoul Poison Control Center
    Yo Han Shin, Sijin Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 39.     CrossRef
Usefulness of Predictors for Hepatotoxicity in Acetaminophen Poisoning Patient
Eun Young Kim, Sung Phil Chung, Dong Ryul Ko, Tae Young Kong, Je Sung You, Min Hong Choa, Min Joung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):149-156.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.149
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hepatotoxicity could be predicted early using biochemical markers in patients with acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning and to assess the usefulness of predictive factors for acute liver injury or hepatotoxicity. Methods: This study was a retrospective observational study involving a medical records review. The participants were patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with AAP overdose at two hospitals over a 10-year period. Demographic data, age, time from ingestion to visit, initial AAP level, initial hepatic aminotransferases, and initial prothrombin time were recorded. Acute liver injury was defined as a peak serum ALT >50 U/L or double the admission value, and hepatotoxicity was defined as a peak ALT >1,000 U/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to compare the prognostic performance among variables. Results: A total of 97 patients were admitted to the ED with AAP overdose, of whom 26 had acute liver injury and 6 had hepatotoxicity. Acute liver injury was associated with the time interval after taking the drug, and hepatotoxicity was associated with the initial PT and the ALT level. The scoring system proposed by the authors has a significant ability to predict both acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: To predict the prognosis of AAP poisoning patients, the time interval after taking AAP was important, and initial prothrombin time and ALT level were useful tests. Also a scoring system combining variables may be useful.
Comparison of Silymarin, Penicillin, N-acetylcysteine in Patient with Amatoxin Poisoning: A Systematic Review
Min Woo Choi, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):33-41.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.33
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of pharmacologic treatment of amatoxin poisoning patients. Methods: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, KoreaMed, KISS and KMBASE. Studies relevant to human use of pharmacologic therapy including silymarin, penicillin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for amanita poisoning were included. Case reports, letters, editorials and papers with insufficient information were excluded. Comparison of clinical outcomes (especially mortality and liver transplantation rate) in each study was analyzed. Results: The final analysis included 13 retrospective studies. None of these studies showed direct comparisons of individual agents. Among 12 studies comparing silymarin vs penicillin, eight showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among eight studies comparing silymarin with NAC, six showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among seven studies of NAC vs penicillin, five showed clinical superiority of NAC. Conclusion: This systematic review suggested that clinical superiority of various pharmacological agents used to treat amatoxin poisoning is debatable. Nevertheless, the available evidence suggests it is reasonable to consider combinations of multiple agents for patients with amanita poisoning. Further studies are required to establish a treatment regimen for amanita poisoning.
Fomepizole for Ethylene Glycol or Methanol Poisoning in Children
Ha Na Min, Yoon Jung Hwang, Dong Ryul Ko, Young Seon Joo, Tae Young Kong, Min Hong Choa, In Cheol Park, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):79-85.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.79
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse effect of fomepizole in the management of acute ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning in children. Methods: Databases such as PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed were searched using terms related to fomepizole, ethylene glycol, methanol and pediatric. All studies, regardless of study design, reporting effectiveness or safety endpoints in children were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Only reports written in English or Korean languages were included. The reference search was performed by two authors. Results: Twenty-two relevant literatures were finally included. They were one narrative review, 4 retrospective case series, and 17 case reports (19 cases). Case reports were classified as 5 fomepizole only, 8 fomepizole with other therapies, and 6 no fomepizole. All patients from the literatures were fully recovered without long term sequelae. Adverse effects of fomepizole were reported including anaphylaxis, thrombophlebitis and nystagmus. Conclusion: There are insufficient literatures regarding fomepizole treatment in children with ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning. The benefits or harms are not clearly established based on the clinical evidences. More prospective comparative studies are required in the future.
A Case Report of Acute Nicotine Poisoning from Subcutaneous Injection of Nicotine Solution for Electronic Cigarette
Jiun Choi, Dong Ryul Ko, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(1):60-64.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.1.60
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Nicotine-poisoning related to the electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) is increasing worldwide. Moreover, the American Association of Poison Control Centers has advised the public to use caution with e-cigarette devices and highly concentrated liquid nicotine after a surge in related poisonings. We report here the first case of nicotine poisoning from self-injected e-cigarette fluid in Korea. A 17-year-old male patient subcutaneously injected himself with 0.5 ml of nicotine solution for an electronic cigarette via the dorsum of his hand, after which he complained of nausea, vomiting, dizziness and dyspnea. His vital signs were within the normal range, but his mental status was drowsy. He was admitted for observation and the symptoms disappeared the following day. Sinus bradycardia with a rate of 45/min was observed on the third hospital day, but improved after 6 hours. He was discharged without complications.
Extracorporeal Life Support in Treatment of Poisoning Patient: Systematic Review
Yong Hee Lee, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2016
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Purpose: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a term used to describe a number of modalities including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support cardiac and/or pulmonary systems. The purpose of this study is to review the available evidence regarding the effect of ECLS in patients with acute poisoning. Methods: Electronic literature searches with PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed were conducted for identification of relevant studies addressing ECLS in treatment of acute poisoning. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in March, 2016 with publication language restricted to English and Korean. The toxic substance, technique of ECLS, and final outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: The final analysis included 64 articles including 55 case reports. There were no articles classified according to a high level of evidence such as randomized trial and prospective cohort study. ECLS treatment was used in the management of patients poisoned with 36 unique substances. Venovenous ECMO was performed in 4 cases. Among the reported cases, 10 patients died despite treatment with ECLS. Conclusion: Evidence supporting ECLS for patients with acute poisoning is inadequate. However, many case reports suggest that early consideration of ECLS in poisoned patients with refractory cardiac arrest or hemodynamic compromise refractory to standard therapies may be beneficial.
Effect of High Dose Insulin/Euglycemia Therapy for Acute Calcium Channel Blocker Intoxication: A Systematic Review
Jinmo Yang, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):103-110.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and the adverse events of high dose insulin/euglycemia therapy in acute calcium channel blocker (CCB) poisoning. Methods: We developed a systematic search strategy and applied it to 4 electronic reference databases. We searched medical journals as well as the bibliographies of relevant articles. All forms of literature relevant to human use of high dose insulin for acute CCB poisoning were included. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in August, 2015 with publication language restricted to English and Korean. Case reports were divided between CCB overdose alone and multi-drug overdose including CCB. The effect and adverse event of high dose insulin and clinical outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: Among 55 searched studies, 20 studies were included. A prospective study, a retrospective study, a systematic review study, and 17 case reports were identified. Case reports consisted of 11 CCB alone and 12 multidrug overdose cases including CCB. Although most cases described significant clinical improvements, one of them showed no beneficial effect. Several adverse events including hypoglycemia and hypokalemia were reported. No significant sequalae from adverse events was reported. Conclusion: Although there were many case reports demonstrating successful use of high dose insulin for CCB poisoning, the effect cannot be estimated due to a possibility of publication bias. Therefore, high dose insulin/euglycemia therapy might be considered adjunctive therapy in cases of CCB intoxication refractory for standard therapy.
Effect of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion in the Patient with Acute Poisoning : A Systematic Review
Jinwoo Myung, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):1-10.   Published online June 30, 2015
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsion as well as adverse events in acute poisoning patients. Methods: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of science, and KoreaMed. All forms of literatures relevant to human use of intravenous lipid emulsion for acute poisoning were included. Cases reports or letters without description of clinical outcomes for each case were excluded. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in March, 2015, with publication language restricted to English and Korean. The effect, onset time, and adverse event of lipid emulsion and final outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: Eighty-one published articles were included, excluding articles whose title and abstract were not relevant to this study. No articles were classified as high level of evidence. Sixty-eight case reports were identified, consisting of 25 local anesthetics and 43 other drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants and calcium channel blockers. Although most cases described significant clinical improvements, some of them showed no beneficial effect or worsening of clinical course. Several adverse events including hyperamylasemia and laboratory interference were reported. Conclusion: Although there were many case reports illustrating successful use of lipid for various drug poisonings, the effect cannot be estimated due to significant possibility of publication bias. Therefore, lipids might be considered in severe hemodynamic instability resulting from lipophilic drug poisoning, however further studies should follow to establish the use of lipid as the standard of care.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology