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Eun-Kyung Eo 25 Articles
A Case of Moderate Paraquat Intoxication with Pulse Therapy in the Subacute Stage of Pulmonary Fibrosis
Ki-Hun Hong, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):130-133.   Published online December 31, 2008
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In South Korea, attempted suicide by paraquat (PQ) intoxication is fairly common, and is lethal by pulmonary fibrosis and hypoxemia. However, the treatment of PQ poisoning is primarily supportive management. To increase the survival rate associated with PQ intoxication, many treatments have been developed. Here, we treated a case of PQ intoxication with steroid pulse therapy. A 23-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of PQ intoxication. He drank two mouthfuls of Gramoxon (24% commercial paraquat). His vital signs were stable, but he had a throat infection, and navy blue urine in the sodium dithionite test. Standard treatment, including gastric lavage with activated charcoal was performed, and emergent hemoperfusion with a charcoal filter was initiated 11 h after PQ ingestion. Pharmacotherapy was initiated 18 h after PQ ingestion with the administration of 5 mg dexamethasone. On day 10, chest PA showed pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, we initiated steroid pulse therapy, with 1g methylprednisolone in 100 mL of D5W administered over 1 h repeated daily for 3 days, and 1 g cyclophosphamide in 100 mL of D5W administered over 1 h daily for 2 days. On day 15, dexamethasone therapy was initiated. On day 30, pulmonary fibrosis was improved. Thus, if pulmonary fibrosis becomes exacerbated after dexamethasone therapy during the subacute stage, pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide could be helpful.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Zolpidem Intoxication
Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Eun-Kyung Eo, Young-Jin Cheon, Koo-Young Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):91-98.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: The hypnotic effect of zolpidem is comparable to benzodiazepines, but has less abuse and addiction potential than benzodiazepines, so is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotics. The frequency of acute zolpidem overdose has increased, but clinical analysis and severity predictors are not known in Korea. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of histories, clinical courses, and laboratory findings of each patient treated from June, 2000, to May, 2006, in a university hospital for acute zolpidem intoxication. Results: We evaluated 30 patients, including 16 co-intoxication cases. Twenty-five patients presented mental alterations but became alert within 2 days. All patients recovered completely. The median zolpidem concentration was 0.9 mg/L (range: $0.2{sim}7.4;mg/L$). There was a weak correlation between the amount ingested and zolpidem concentration (r=0.25). None of them presented severe laboratory abnormalities, and these abnormalities did not relate to zolpidem concentration. Conclusion: The clinical progress of acute zolpidem intoxication is mild. We could not predict zolpidem concentration or clinical severity from the amount ingested and could not predict the clinical course from laboratory findings in the emergency department.
Overview of Poisoning Admission in Korea - based on the hospital discharge injury surveillance data -
Si-Young Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo, Chan-Woong Kim, Hye-Sook Park, Young-Tak Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):16-24.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: There has been no nationwide surveillance survey of poisoning cases in Korea. This study examined the clinical characteristics of poisoning admissions in order to obtain preliminary data for future planning. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the data on poisoning admissions of 150 hospitals based on the hospital discharge injury surveillance data of Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Korea from January to December in 2004. The demographic data, poisons used, causes of poisoning, reasons for attempted suicide and mortality rate was investigated according to the age group. The factors associated with mortality were also evaluated. Results: A total 836 patients admitted for poisoning were analyzed. Their mean age was $46.5{pm}19.5$ years (male 415, female 421). The most frequent age group was the 4th and 5th decades. The most common poisons involved were pesticides (45%) and medications (23%). The majority (64%) involved intentional poisoning except for those in the 1st decade. The most common reason for the attempted suicide was family problems. However, individual disease was the most common reason in those over 60 years. The overall mortality rate was 8.7% (73/836). Pesticides and being elderly (over 65 years old) were strongly correlated with fatality. Conclusion: The incidence of intentional poisoning increases from the 2nd decade making it a preventable injury. "Overall, the incidence of intentional poisoning increases from the 2nd decade". Therefore, there is a need to frame a prevention policy corresponding to each factor related to fatality, such as an elderly population and pesticides.
Clinical Implication of Acetylcholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning
Hoon Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jun-Sig Kim, Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):25-31.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning may be monitored by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is important to assess severity and establish prognostic tests in the early stage of OP poisoning. The aim of this study was to look at the relationship between various clinical aspects of the OP poisoning, prognostic indicators of OP poisoning including Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, and the associated changes in AChE levels. Methods: Clinical data and initial AChE levels from thirty-seven patients with OP poisoning were prospectively reviewed from 12 teaching hospitals in South Korea from August 2005 to July 2006. Clinical manifestations at the time of arrival such as miosis, respiratory abnormality, salivation, urinary incontinence, GCS score, AVPU scale, need for intubation, and mechanical ventilation requirements were recorded. SAPS 3 was calculated using clinical data and laboratory results. Results: The median level of AChE was 9.8 (1.3-53.6) U/gHb. There was no significant difference in AChE levels between the groups with and without cholinergic symptoms. The median level of AChE of the patients who required intubation and those who did not were 3.5 U/gHb and it 19.7 U/gHb respectively (Mann-Whitney test; p<0.001). The AChE levels were also significantly different (p=0.007) in patients who needed mechanical ventilation compared to those who did not with AChE levels found to be 3.1 U/gHb and it was 14.8 U/gHb, respectively. Level of consciousness assessed using the AVPU scale was correlated with AChE levels (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.013). GCS score were correlated with AChE levels (p=0.007, Spearman's rho = 0.454). In addition, the lower the level of initial AChE, the longer the ICU stay (p=0.029, Spearman's rho=-0.380). SAPS 3 was inversely correlated with the initial AChE (p<0.001, Spearman's rho=-0.633). Conclusion: In the acute OP poisoning, low AChE levels appear to help indicate the severity of poisoning. The initial AChE level may be a useful prognostic parameter for acute OP poisoning.
Severe Acidosis after Massive Metformin Overdose
Bo-In Kim, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):42-44.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Metformin which is an oral hypoglycemic agents, acts by enhancing insulin sensitivity, decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing peripheral utilization of glucose. Deliberate self poisoning with oral hypoglycemic agents is rare. The lactic acidosis associated with metformin toxicity is well described in the medical literature. Metformin overdose even in otherwise healthy patients may produce a profound and life threatening lactic acidosis. We report a case of massive metformin ingestion(75g) in a patient presenting with lactic acidosis and hypotension. She died 24h after presenting to our emergency department despite bicarbonate treatment and hemofiltration therapy.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Dichlorvos Poisoning in Korea
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Dichlorvos has been in widespread use as an organophosphate (OP) insecticide compound. The purpose of this study was to access the epidemiology and clinical features of dichlorvos in Korea. Methods: This was a 38 multi-center prospective study of dichlorvos poisoning using surveys, a structural reporting system and review of hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. A total of 54 patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning on a national basis were enrolled. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of dichlorvos poisoning. In addition, the clinical features of dichlorvos poisoning were compared with others OP compounds. Results: During the study period, compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos (22.7%), methidathion (8.4%), and phosphamidon (6.7%). In acute dichlorvos poisoning, all ingestion routes were oral. Intentional poisoning involved 74.1% of cases. The common initial complaints involved gastrointestinal (64.8%), systemic (61.1%), central or peripheral nervous system (53.7%), and respiratory symptoms (50.0%). The median arrival time to hospital after dichlorvos poisoning was 2.6 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 7.1 days. 2-PAM was administered in 35 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered in 30 patients with a mean dose of 62.8 mg/day (maximal 240 mg/day). Overall mortality rate for dichlorvos poisonings were 14.8% (8/54). Immediate causes for death included sudden cardiac arrest or ventricular dysrhythmias (50%), multi-organ failure (25%), acute renal failure (12.5%), and unknown causes (12.5%). Conclusion: When compared to previous reports, dichlorvos poisoning displayed relatively moderate severity. The presence of a lower GCS score, altered mental status, serious dysrhythmias, systemic shock, acute renal failure, and respiratory complications upon presentation were associated with a more serious and fatal poisoning.
Clinical Aspects of the Chlorophenoxy Herbicide Intoxicated Patients
Young-Soon Cho, Ho-Jung Kim, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):112-118.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: There have been relatively few reports of chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1 August 2005 to the 31 July 2006. Results: 24 patients were enrolled during the study periods. Their mean age was 55.7 years old. The median amount of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated is 150 mL. The most frequent location where the patients obtained and took the chlorophenoxy herbicide was their home. Frequent compounds involving chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning were dicamba(66.7%), MCPP(16.7%), and 2,4-D(12.5%). The most common symptom of the patients was confusion and vomiting. 16 patients(66.7%) intended to suicide. 3 patients out of 24 patients(13.0%) were died. Conclusion: There were 24 patients intoxicated by the chlorophenoxy herbicide during the study periods. The mortality rate was 13.0%. The suicidal attempts and the numbers of death involving chlorophenoxy herbicide were high in Korea.
A Case of a Patient with Stuporous Mentality and Hypotension after Amitraz Ingestion
Si-Young Jung, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):123-125.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Amitraz is a formamidine-derived insecticide and acaricide which is commonly used throughout the world. Amitraz intoxication is mediated through ${alpha}_2$ adrenergic receptor agonist effects, similar to those of the ${alpha}_2$ agonist clonidine. We report a case of a patient who experienced coma and hypotension after amitraz ingestion. A 37-year-old woman visited the ER with symptoms of vomiting and altered mental state. She had ingested a mouthful of liquid amitraz concentrate (12.5%), which rapidly led to vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, hyperglycemia, and mental stupor. Supportive treatment, including mechanical ventilation and administration of inotropics, resulted in full recovery within four days.
Ingestion of Hydrofluoric acid: A rapid and fetal poisoning
Jae-Hee Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):135-137.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Hydrofluoric acid is a weak inorganic acid used for etching and as rust removals. Systemic toxicity after oral ingestion induces rapid development of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia, leading to ventricular fibrillation and finally asystole. We report a case of intentional ingestion of hydrofluoric acid producing an altered mental state at the time of the patient's arrival in the emergency department. The patient died approximately 80 minutes after the exposure with asystol.
The Study of Pyrethroid Intoxication: The basis of Agrichemical Intoxication Survey in 2005
Ah-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):99-105.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: Pyrethroid is an insecticide that produces moderate intoxication in mammals, with neither exposure to skin nor inhalation resulting in severe systemic manifestations. In 2005 we made a nationwide survey of agrichemical human intoxication. The object of this study is to analyze pyrethroid intoxications based on the 2005 survey. Methods: We prospectively collected data from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006 by a standard investigation protocol. We analyzed demographic data, exposure data (cause, amount, ingredients), clinical features, and courses. Results: A total of 125 cases of pyrethroid intoxication were surveyed. The mean patient age was $56.78{pm}16.158$ years old, and the mean amount ingested was $121.85{pm}110.732ml$. Patients were classified into four severity groups according to symptoms and mental status: the asymptomatic group (27 patients, 21.6%), the mild symptom group (48, 38.4%), the moderate symptom group (21, 16.8%), and the severe symptom group (7, 5.6%). There were statistically significant differences in mental status, severity, and mean ICU days between two groups. Admission days by severity grade for the asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe symptom groups were $5.49{pm}16.051,;3.65{pm}4.143,;4.59{pm}3.335,;and;8.14{pm}7.199days$, respectively (p=0.047). Conclusion: Nationwide surveillance was extremely telling in uncovering a high frequency of agrichemical intoxication in Korea. In pyrethroid intoxication, severity grading can be a useful prognostic tool.
Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Carbamate Poisoning in Korea
Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Gil-Joon Suh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and the prognostic factors of carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, we investigated the demographic feature, dose of exposure, time of exposure, alcohol intake, route of exposure, reason of exposure, site of exposure, pre-existing medical condition, time from exposure to emergency department (ED), transfer from other hospitals, vital sign at ED arrival, symptom or sign at ED arrival, and result of care of the patients who visited the ED of thirty-eight hospitals in Korea. According to the result of care, we divided the patients into two groups, the survival and the dead. To evaluated the prognostic factors, we calculated the odds ratio of each factor for the survival. Results: Among the sixty-eight patients, fifty-five patients (80.9%) were survival and thirteen patients (19.1%) were dead. The patients in the dead were older than the patients in the survival. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of the patients in the dead was lower than the GCS in the survival. The odds ratio of the GCS at ED arrival for the survival was 1.58 (95% CI; 1.23-2.05). Other factors showed no statistical significances. Conclusion: The GCS at emergency department arrival was the prognosis factor of the carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. If the carbamate poisoned patients showed altered mentalities, they should be provided intensive care, immediately.
Clinical Aspects of the Organochlorine Intoxicated Patients
Jun-Ho Cho, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):15-20.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the organochlorine intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the organochlorine intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1, Aug. 2005 to the 31, Jul. 2006. Results: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The mean age of patients was 55.1 years old. The mean amount of the organochlorine intoxicated is 246.1 mL. The most frequent place where the patients got and took the organochlorine was their home. Twenty eight patients(73.7%) intended to suicide. Nine patients out of 38 patients(23.7%) were died and they all intended to suicide. Conclusion: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The suicidal attempts and the number of the dead were higher in Korea than the developed countries.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Pure Organophosphate Compounds Poisoning - 38 Multi-centers Survey in South Korea -
Mi-Jin Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):27-35.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphate (OP) compounds insecticides are the most commonly associated with serious human toxicity all over the world. The aim of this study was to identify sociocultural factors that contribute to high incidence of pure OP poisoning and prevent OP poisoning in order to reduce the factors responsible for deaths in South Korea. Methods: This is the 38 multi-centers survey and prospective study of pure OP poisoning by structural reporting system and hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. 238 patients with acute pure OP poisoning were enrolled. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: The mean age was $55.32{pm}17.3$ years old. The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence(85.7%). Frequent compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos(22.7%), methidathion(8.4%), and phosphamidon(6.7%). Intentional poisoning was 77.9%. The most frequently route of exposure was ingestion(94.5%). The mean arrival time to hospital after poisoning was 12.7 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 12.9 days. 2-PAM was administered to 101 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered to 81 patients in mean doses of 74.6 mg/day (maximal 910 mg/day). The presence of lower level of GCS score, respiratory complications, hypotension, acute renal failure, and serious dysrhythmia was associated with serious and fatal poisoning. Overall final mortality in pure OP poisoning was 9.7%(23/238). Conclusion: This study highlights the problem of pure OP poisoning in South Korea as a basic national survey. Futhermore this might help the establishment of strict policies availability of OP and the statistics of OP poison exposure in South Korea.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.
A Case of Acute Poisoning with Dry Ice
Soon-Young Hwang, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):43-45.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Carbon dioxide is the fourth most abundant gas in the earth's atmosphere, and it is widely used in the chemical industry. Solid carbon dioxide is commonly known as dry ice. At low concentration, carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations, however, it can produce an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, loss of consciousness, convulsion, and even death. Management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of an individual from the toxic environment and administration of oxygen. It is important to know the concentration of carbon dioxide to which a patient has been exposed. We report a case of acute poisoning from solid carbon dioxide in a patient presenting with drowsiness and diminished mental capacity when she arrived in the emergency department. She recovered completely after administration of oxygen with conservative treatment.
Dimethoate Intoxication with Refractory Shock and Hyperglycemia
Jae-Eun Kim, Jin-Hee Jung, Hyun-A Bae, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Organophosphorus insecticides induce different clinical manifestations varying according to the different side groups attached to the phosphate, their rates of degradation, and their fat solubilities. In consequence of this variation, specific treatments are required for particular organophosphorus insecticides. We report a unusual case of intoxication with dimethyl organophosphorus insecticide in a 26-year-old woman. She manifested atypical and ultimately fatal symptoms including profound shock, refractory hyperglycemia, and hypothermia.
Different Clinical Outcomes by Subgroups in Organophosphorus Poisoning
Duk-Hee Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Koo-Young Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphorus insecticides tend to be regarded as a homogeneous single entity. We aimed to determine whether organophosphate poisoning differs by subgroups in clinical features and severity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with acute organophophorus poisoning from January 1998 to December 2006. We investigated clinical features, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), laboratory findings, QTc intervals, management, and outcomes. Results: A total of 109 patients were included. The dimethoxy group experienced significantly longer times than the diethoxy group for ventilation duration (0.6 day vs. 0.2 day, p=0.006), ICU duration (2.0 day vs. 0.8 day, p=0.037), and total admission duration (2.8 day vs. 0.9 day, p=0.008), except in cases of dichlorvos poisoning. Also, the GCS of the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) was significantly lower than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $11.2{pm}5.2$ vs. diethoxy, $13.8{pm}2.4$, p= 0.021). QTc intervals for the dimethoxy group (except with dichlorvos) tended to be somewhat greater than for the diethoxy group (dimethoxy, $452.9{pm}16.1;msec$ vs. diethoxy, $429.6{pm}40.9;msec$). There were 65 patients with dichlorvos ingestion, and 2 of these patients (3%) died. Conclusion: When compared to the diethoxy group, the dimethoxy group of organophosphates (with the exception of dichlorvos) were associated with poorer prognostic value for indicators such as GCS, QTc interval, requirement for intubation, ICU duration, and total admission duration. Within the dimethoxy group, patients with dichlorvos poisoning had relatively better prognoses than for the other dimethoxy group organophosphates studied.
The Differences of Clinical Aspects in Children and Adolescents Poisoning
Joo-Hyun Suh, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):17-24.   Published online June 30, 2006
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Objectives
To analyze the general characteristics and clinical differences of poisoning in children and adolescents and to take precautions of occasions. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated poisoning children and adolescents (less than 19 years) visiting to the emergency medical center of tertiary hospital in urban area. We collected demographic data, substance exposure data (materials, causes of poisoning and amount), and clinical outcome of poisoning for the past 2 years and 9 months. Results: 189 cases were reported of concerning poisoning in children and adolescents. The age groups were divided into four categories. (1) Infants group:<2 year, (2) Preschool age group: $2{sim}5year$, (3) Children group: $6{sim}12year$ and (4) Adolescents group: $13{sim}18year$. The most vulnerable age group was the infants group. There were two-peaks of age distribution in poisoned patients on the whole. Various types of materials belonged to classes of druqs (56.6%). household products (34.4%) and industrial solvents (9.0%). On adolescents group, the frequency of drug poisoning was significantly high, in comparison with infants, preschool age, and children group (p=0.001). Most of the patient groups had been poisoned accidentally(73.5%), while most cases of adolescents poisoning had been intentional. 63% of the adolescents group had a suicidal purpose. Conclusion: The incidence of poisoning was most highly due to drugs. The cause of poisoning is most commonly accidental. while in adolescent group, intentional poisoning is mostly common. Special cares, like keeping children away from drugs, will be needed to prevent children poisoning, and psychiatric consultation and supportive cares can reduce the adolescents poisoning cases.
The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C and Deferoxamine on Paraquat-induced Cytotoxicity in Cultured Lymphocytes
Eun-Kyung Eo, Kyung-Hee Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):7-16.   Published online June 30, 2006
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Purpose: As basic information of antioxidant treatments for the patient with paraquat intoxication, in human peripheral lymphocytes, the cytotoxicity of paraquat was measured, and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and deferoxamine against this cytotoxicity, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. Methods: From 10 healthy adults, after obtaining a consent, 20ml peripheral blood was collected. Experimental groups were divided to (1) control group, the group treated with an identical amount of saline, (2) P group: the group treated with paraquat only, (3) PV group: the group treated with paraquat followed by vitamin C 30 minutes later, (4) PD group: the group treated with paraquat followed by deferoxamine 30 minutes later, (5) PVD group: the group treated with paraquat followed by vitamin C 30 minutes later and subsequently deferoxamine one hour later, and (6) PDV group: the group treated with paraquat followed by deferoxamine 30 minutes later and subsequently vitamin C 1 hour later, and thus to total 6 groups. In each group, 10 samples of peripheral blood was assigned and $100{mu}M;paraquat,;100{mu}M$ vitamin C, and $100{mu}M$ deferoxamine were used as reagent. Lymphocytes were isolated, cultured, and cytotoxicity was measured by the Microculture Tetrazolium method (MTT assay), MDA and SOD activity, and TAS concentration were measured. Results: In regard to the cytotoxicity measured in each group, their cytotoxicity was decreased in the group treated with antioxidants, in comparison with the group treated with paraquat only. In the cases that the order of the treatment of these two antioxidants was altered, viability in the PDV group $(1.077{pm}0.121)$ was increased more that the PVD group $(0.888{pm}0.152)$ statistically significantly (p=0.018). Concerning the amount of MDA, in comparison with the P group $(6.78{pm}0.93{mu}mol/L)$, after the treatment of each antioxidant, the concentration of MDA was decreased statistically significantly (p<0.05). In the group treated with two antioxidants together, in comparison with the group treated only with one antioxidant, the amount of MDA was increased statistically significantly $(PV:;3.96{pm}0.98{mu}mol/L,;PD:;4.92{pm}1.50{mu}mol/L,;PVD:;3.22{pm}0.83{mu}mol/L,;and;PDV:;3.42{pm}0.95{mu}mol/L,;p=0.007)$. The concentration of SOD measured in the blood in each group after the administration of paraquat, in comparison with the control group, a pattern of the elevation of SOD activity and subsequent decrease was detected, however, it was not statistically significant. In the comparison of the groups treated with antioxidants, in comparison with the P group $(1419.9{pm}265.9{mu}mol/L)$, SOD activity was decreased statistically significantly in only the PDV group $(1176.4{pm}238.9{mu}mol/L)$ (p=0.017). In regard to TAS measured in each group, in comparison with the P group $(0.87{pm}0.05{mu}mol/L)$, in all groups treated with the antioxidants, the PV group was $1.00{pm}0.03{mu}mol/L$ (p=0.005), the PD group was $9.01{pm}0.24{mu}mol/L$ was $4.64{pm}3.98{mu}mol/L$ (P=0.005), and the PDV group was $9.41{pm}0.27{mu}mol/La$ (p=0.005), and thus total antioxidant activity was increased statistically significantly In a multiple comparison test, the PDV group showed the highest total antioxidant activity (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The result of the assessment of the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and deferoxamine on paraquat-induced cytotoxicity showed that in regard to cytotoxicity, SOD activity and TAS measurement, the best result was observed in the PDV group. Therefore, it was found that vitamin C and deferoxamine were effective antioxidants for the paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, and it suggests that the administration of deferoxamine followed by vitamin C may improve their antioxidant effect more.
Hypokalemic Muscular Paralysis Causing Acute Respiratory Failure in a Chronic Glue Sniffer
Yoon-Hee Choi, Dong-Hoon Lee, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):63-66.   Published online June 30, 2005
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Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon found in glues, cements, and solvents. It is known to be toxic to the nervous system, hematopoietic system, and causes acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Acute respiratory failure with hypokalemia and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should be considered as potential events in protracted glue sniffing. We reported the case of 26-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with the development of respiratory failure and altered mentality due to hypokalemia after chronic glue sniffing. She was weaned from the ventilator 3 days later after potassium and sodium bicarbonate replacement and was discharged without respiratory symptoms and other complications.
A Case of Recurrent Ventricular Tachycardia after Pimozide and Haloperidol Overdose
Jin-Hee Jung, Hye-Young Jang, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):67-70.   Published online June 30, 2005
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Pimozide and haloperidol are typical antipsychotics. They share a similarity in pharmacotherapeutic and adverse effect profiles. Cardiovascular effects may be seen as alterations in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac conduction. Conduction disturbances may occur ranging from asymptomatic prolongation of the QT interval to fatal ventricular arrhythmia. So in the case of anti psychotics overdose, the patient must be carefully monitored by continuous electrocardiography (ECG). We experienced a 34-year-old woman of schizophrenia with recurrent ventricular tachycardia after pimozide and haloperidol overdose. Initially she was slightly drowsy, however her ECG showed normal sinus rhythm. After 6 hours on emergency department entrance, her ECG monitoring showed ventricular tachycardia and we successfully defibrillated. There were five times events of ventricular arrhythmia during the in-hospital stay. She was discharged 5 days later without any other complications.
Parkinsonism after Cyanide Intoxication: A Case Report
Joo-Hyun Suh, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):137-140.   Published online December 31, 2004
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Acute cyanide poisoning is usually the result of attempted suicide which is often lethal within minutes or leads to a very poor prognosis after delayed and inadequate treatment. It affects the cerebral structures with the highest oxygen requirement, such as the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex. We experienced a-45-year-old man who ingested Potassium Cyanide. He was stuporous. In 25 minutes, respiratory arrest developed and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was done. After return of spontaneous circulation, he admitted to intensive care unit, and conservative treatment was started. The clinical status was improved by degrees, but he couldn't perform daily activity like before. Minimal limitation of movement and memory deficit were left. In magnetic resonance imaging, which taken at the 11th day after admission, there were both basal ganglia and folia of cerebellum abnormality.
Two Cases of Sodium Bicarbonate Inhalation Therapy in Chlorine Gas Intoxication
Dong-Hoon Lee, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):49-53.   Published online June 30, 2004
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A chlorine gas is a common irritant and when exposed, it result in mild occular, oropharyngeal, or respiratory symptoms. In severe case, however, it may result in pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, or respiratory failure. We report the case of 29-year-old and 46-year-old men is accidentally exposed to chlorine gas during cleaning water. The patients complained dyspnea, chest tightness, cough and both eye pain. During hospitalization, they were treated with inhalation of humidified oxygen, beta-adrenergic agonist and $2\%$ sodium bicarbonate. After several days, patients were discharged without respiratory symptoms and complication. In treatment of chlorine gas toxicity the inhalation of sodium bicarbonate is a possible initial therapy can improve respiratory symptoms in spite of lack of evidence.
A case of Hypothermia Resulting from Disulfiram-Ethanol Reaction
Hyun-A Bae, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):54-57.   Published online June 30, 2004
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Disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulphid) is used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism since it causes an unpleasant aversive reaction to alcohol. It works by inactivating hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to pronounced rise in the acetaldehyde concentration when ethanol is metabolized. Acetaldehyde causes alcohol sensitivity, which involve vasodilation associated with feeling of hotness and facial flushing, increased heart rate and respiration rates, lowered blood pressure, nausea, headache. One of its metabolites, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) can inhibit the enzyme dopamine $eta$-hydroxylase (DBH), this may account for the profound refractory hypotension and hypothermia seen with the disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER), resulting from norepinephrine depletion. This report is presents the case of a patient we met, who presented with hypothermia caused by the disulfiram-ethanol reaction, and along with a brief review of the subject.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology