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Hahn-Shick Lee 7 Articles
Extended Blood Drug Concentrations in Extended Release Formulated Acetaminophen Overdose Patients
Jin-Ho Bum, Nu-Ga Rhee, Min-Joung Kim, Jung-Suk Park, Hyun-Jong Kim, Sung-Pil Chung, Hahn-Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(2):71-76.   Published online December 31, 2011
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Purpose: The Rumack-Matthew nomogram cannot be applied in managing overdose by extended release (ER) preparation acetaminophen (AAP). This study analyzed the clinical characteristics of ER preparation AAP overdose in order to develop a treatment recommendation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients presented to the emergency department as a result of AAP overdose from Jan 2008 to Dec 2010. Only those patients who ingested an ER preparation of AAP were included in the study. Their blood AAP concentrations were measured at 4 and 8 hours after ingestion. Clinical variables related to AAP intoxication were analyzed. Results: Of the total 108 AAP overdose patients identified during the 3-year period, 20 suffered specifically with ER preparation AAP overdose. The mean estimated ingestion amount was 167.5 mg/kg. Treatments including gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were performed on 10, 14, and 11 patients, respectively. Hepatotoxicity was diagnosed in only one patient who was then successfully treated with NAC. In another case, blood AAP concentration continued to increase until at least 11-hours after ingestion. Conclusion: This study suggested that blood AAP concentrations associated with ingestion of ER formulations of AAP, may increase in an extended manner. Therefore, multiple sampling and longer periods between samples assessing AAP blood concentration may be required for incidences of extended release overdose.
Acetaminophen Poisoning
Sung-Pil Chung, Seung-Ho Kim, Hahn-Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):1-8.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Acetaminophen (AAP) overdose can result in potentially serious hepatotoxicity. The ingested dose and time from ingestion to presentation are important prognostic factors. Toxic dose in adult is thought to be at least 10 g or 200 mg/kg. However, early management of acute overdose should be guided by the plasma AAP concentration. The antidote for AAP poisoning is N-acetylcysteine (NAC). It provides complete protection against hepatotoxicity if given within 8 h of acute overdose. If the concentration is above the possible toxicity line as predicted by the Rumack-Matthew nomogram, either the 72-hr oral or the 20-hr intravenous NAC regimen should be administered. NAC is also effective if started late in patients with established hepatic failure. This article summarizes the current consensus of clinical assessment and management for acute AAP overdose.
A Lethal Case of Sodium Azide Ingestion
Yeoun-Woo Nam, Jung-Eon Kim, Jun-Ho Cho, Sung-Pil Chung, Hahn-Shick Lee, Eui-Chung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):49-51.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Sodium azide (NaN3) is a white to colorless, crystalline powder that is highly water soluble, tasteless, and odorless. It is used mainly as a preservative in aqueous laboratory reagents and biologic fluids and also as an automobile airbag gas generant. Although it has caused deaths for decades, the toxic properties and effects of sodium azide in humans remains unknown. A 31-year-old comatose female was transported to the emergency department with an empty bottle labeled sodium azide. She developed cardiac arrest 15 minutes after arrival and expired in spite of 30 minutes of resuscitative effort. Subsequently, resuscitation team members incidentally suffered from sodium azide's exposure and developed eye discomfort, skin rashes parasthesias, pruritus, sore throat, and headache.
Survey of the Antidote Stocking in the Emergency Medical Centers in Korea
Je-Sung You, Eui-Chung Kim, Hahn-Shick Lee, Seung-Ho Kim, Sung-Pil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):106-111.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: Inadequate hospital stocking and unavailability of essential antidotes is a worldwide problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of antidote stocks in Korean hospitals based on a modified version of US antidote stocking guidelines. Methods: Both written and telephone surveys to collect information on hospital demographics and antidote stocking were given to the emergency departments or hospital pharmacies of 117 hospitals with emergency medical centers. The twenty antidotes included in the survey were taken from year 2000 US antidote stocking guidelines, except for activated charcoal and black widow spider antivenin. Antidote stocks were compared by hospital size, geographic location, and type of emergency medical center. Results: Complete responses were received from all hospitals. A mean of $12.4{pm}2.9$ antidotes were adequately stocked per hospital. All hospitals stocked atropine, $CaCl_2$ naloxone, and sodium bicarbonate. However, digoxin Fab fragment (16%), cyanide kits (15%), EDTA (10%), BAL (9%), and fomepizole (1%) were not uniformly stocked. Large and teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to stock greater numbers of antidotes. Conclusions: Korean hospitals as a group do not have adequate antidote stocks. Korean stocking guidelines and an antidote management system are recommended in order to correct these deficiencies.
Is N-acetylcysteine Treatment Based on Ingestion Amount Valid in Acute Acetaminophen Overdose Patients?
Tae-Geun Kim, Min-Joung Kim, Jin-Hee Lee, Sung-Pil Chung, Hahn-Shick Lee, Yoo-Seok Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):107-112.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Purpose: In many Korean hospitals, serum acetaminophen concentrations in cases of overdose cannot be measured initially because of inadequate laboratory facilities. Under these circumstances, physicians base the administration of the antidote, N-acetylcysteine, on ingestion amounts as determined by initial history taking. We therefore examined the correlated between ingested amounts and serum acetaminophen concentrations. Methods: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for patients who presented to the ED with acetaminophen overdose between January 2002 and March 2006. Fifty-nine patients were recruited and sixteen patients were excluded. The forty-three remaining patients were placed into either the high-risk or low-risk group based on their ingested amount (140 mg/kg), and were separately categorized into the toxic or non-toxic group based on their serum acetaminophen concentrations, according to the Rurnack-Matthew nomogram. Results: Ten patients (83.3%) among twelve in the high-risk group were found to have non-toxic serum concentrations, and just one patient (3.2%) among thirty-one in the low-risk group fell into the toxic group based on their serum concentrations. The sensitivity and specificity of risk stratification of the ingested amount as a predictor of intoxication requiring antidote therapy were 66.7% and 75.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the therapeutic decision for acetaminophen overdose should not be based solely on ingested amount only, but requires assessment of acetaminophen concentration.
Transient Change of Electrocardiogram in Two Young Women With Salicylate Intoxication - Two Cases Report -
Je-Sung You, Jong-Woo Park, Young-Hwan Choi, Young-Soon Cho, Kwang-Hyun Cho, Jun-Seok Park, Sung-Pil Chung, Hahn-Shick Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):44-47.   Published online June 30, 2006
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Symptoms of aspirin overdose may vary from acid-base disturbance, electrolyte abnormality, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, chemical hepatitis, seizure to cardiac toxicity. Cardiac adverse effects from aspirin are uncommon but there are reports of arrhythmia, cardiopulmonary arrest, and myocardial infarction. We report 2 cases of young women with aspirin overdose who exhibited ischemic changes on their ECGs a few hours after the ingestion with spontaneous recovery in a few days. First case, a 29 year old woman, presented to the emergency department 6 hours after ingesting 250 tablets of aspirin (325 mg/T). On examination, the temperature was $36.3^{circ}C$: blood pressure, 105/72mmHg; Pulse, 111/min and respiratory rate, 24/min. Second case, a 27 year old woman, an hour after ingesting 60 tablets (325mg/T). On examination, the temperature was $36.0^{circ}C$: blood pressure, 102/72 mmHg; pulse, 89/min and respiratory rate, 25/min. In both cases, ECG after 6 hours of ingestion had sinus tachycardia and developed T wave inversion on the anterior leads in the following ECGs. Their initial serum salicylate levels after 6 hours of ingestion were 71.2 mg/dL and 28.4 mg/dL respectively. These salicylate levels were resolving when these ECGs were observed. The ECG changes resolved in the following days and they were discharged without any further symptoms. Further studies are needed, but for the time being, when dealing with salicylate overdose, transient cardiac depression should be kept in mind to avoid adverse ischemic cardiac events.
Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) from Chlorine Gas Releasing Cleaning Agents
Kwang-Hyun Cho, Seung-Hwan Kim, Young-Soon Cho, Hahn-Shick Lee, Joon-Seok Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):60-62.   Published online June 30, 2005
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A previously healthy 57-year-old woman with dyspnea and wheezing presented to the emergency department a few minutes after exposure to unknown gas from mixing bleach (sodium hypochlorite) and cleaning agent (hydrochloric acid) at work place. Initial physical examination revealed severe wheezing on both whole lung fields, but the chest radiograph was normal. Arterial blood gas analysis showed only moderate hypoxemia. The patient was treated with oxygen, $eta$adrenergic bronchodilators, antihistamines and corticosteroids, after then symptoms were improved. And the patient discharged against medical advice. We report a rare case of reactive airways dysfuntion syndrome from chlorine gas exposure.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology