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Jin Hui Paik 9 Articles
Analysis of Characteristics in Children and Adolescents with Poisoning at Emergency Department
Do Young Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Jin Hui Paik, Seung Baek Han, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):140-147.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.140
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Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the features of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years to understand the characteristics of potential victims and eventually prevent poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed poisoned children and adolescents (0-18 years) who visited the emergency department of one tertiary hospital from January 2003 through December 2013. We collected data including their age, sex, reason for poisoning, components and dose of poison, results of treatment, and psychiatric diagnosis. Results: During the study period, there were 436 cases of poisoning (male 47.2% (n=206); female 52.8% (n=230)). Subjects were classified into four groups (0-1 years, 2-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-18 years). The most common cause of poisoning in all age groups was accidental poisoning (72.9%), but intentional poisoning increased as age increased (p<0.001). Moreover, females were more often subject to intentional poisoning than males (p<0.001). The most common poisoning material was drugs (41.7%). Among intentional poisoning patients, 62.7% patients had consulted a psychiatrist, and their most common diagnosis was adjustment disorder (44.6%). Conclusion: The most common cause of poisoning in individuals aged 0-18 years was accidental poisoning, while intentional poisoning was most common among adolescents. Guardians should take care to prevent accidental poisoning, while psychiatric consultation and national moderation will be needed to prevent intentional poisoning.
The Clinical Feature and Prognostic Factor of Glyphosate Intoxication Patients
Hee Min Eun, Jin Hui Paik, Joo Hyun Suh, Jin Hee Jung, Eun Kyung Eo, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(2):89-95.   Published online December 31, 2013
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Purpose: Glyphosate is widely used and its toxic exposures are not rare. Occasionally, glyphosate intoxication can lead to death. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical findings and fatality in glyphosate intoxication. Methods: Clinical data on acute glyphosate intoxication were prospectively collected at 28 hospitals nationwide between August 2005 and July 2006. The patients' clinical symptoms and characteristics of fatalities were investigated and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Among 105 patients who were finally included, gastrointestinal symptoms(59%) were the most common. A significant difference in the amount ingested was observed between patients with higher systolic blood pressure and those with systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 80 mmHg (p<0.001). The more the patients ingested, the more aggravated their mental status became (p=0.004). Seven patients(6.7%) died, and all of them had ingested greater than or equal to 200 ml. Patients who died had ingested greater amounts than the survivors (p<0.001), and their mental status was worse (p<0.001), and systolic blood pressure was lower (p<0.001). According to the result of logistic regression analysis, relative risk was 24.1-fold higher in the 'poor' mental status group compared with 'good'. Conclusion: Patients who ingested large amounts of glyphosate showed poor mental status and lower blood pressure. Statistical difference in amount ingested, mental status, and systolic blood pressure was observed between survivors and patients who died. Ingested amounts and mental status were the most important factor of the prognosis of glyphosate intoxication.
Serotonin Syndrome After an Overdose of Dextromethorphan and Chlorpeniramine: Two Case Reports
Kwang Yul Jung, Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):19-22.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Dextromethorphan and chlorpeniramine are common ingredients of over-the-counter (OTC) cough pills. They are known to be safe when used alone, however, combination with other serotonergic drugs or use of an overdose can cause serotonergic toxicity. We report on a 43-year-old male and a 57-year-old female who ingested an overdose of antitussive drugs containing dextromethorphan and chlorpeniramine. They commonly presented with altered mentality and hyperreflexia on both upper and lower extremities. After conservative therapies, they were discharged with alert mentality. These cases are meaningful in that there are few cases of serotonin syndrome with an overdose of a combination of dextromethorphan and chlorpeniramine. Careful use with medication counseling for OTC cough pills is needed in order to prevent overdose of these ingredients.
A Case of Central Nervous System (CNS) Toxicity in Acute Organophosphate Intoxication
Jae Sung Lee, Jin Hui Paik, Sung Hyun Yun, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):31-35.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Acute organophosphate intoxication is important because of its high morbidity and mortality. The mortality is still high despite the use of atropine as specific antidotal therapy and oximes for reactivation of acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphate can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizure, coma, and respiratory failure. Acute alteration in conscious state or a coma, which may occur following organophosphate intoxication, is an indication of severe intoxication and poorer prognosis. This acute decline in conscious state often reverses when the cholinergic crisis settles; however, it may be prolonged in some patients. We report on a case of a 60-year-old male who showed prolonged decline in conscious state due to of Central Nervous System (CNS) toxicity after a suicide attempt with organophosphate.
Two Cases of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning
Jae Jin Kim, Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):36-40.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Ethylene glycol poisoning is treated mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition therapy and hemodialysis. Early recognition and initiation of treatment is important because toxic metabolites increase over time by hepatic metabolism; however, there is no confirmative diagnostic tool in our clinical setting. Therefore, diagnosis is dependent on history, high anion gap acidosis, high osmolal gap, etc.. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed in cases where history taking is not possible, such as a mental changed patient. Authors report on two cases of ethylene glycol poisoning by contrasting clinical outcomes, demonstrating the importance of early diagnosis and treatment for achievement of a good outcome.
A Case of Delayed Carbon Monoxide Encephalopathy
Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Hwan Seok Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):41-45.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Following are brief statements about the delayed encephalopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. A 72-year-old male was found without consciousness at home and then visited the ER center. Later we learned that the patient was using briquettes as a household heating source. Blood carbon monoxide hemoglobin level was 17.5%. As carbon monoxide poisoning was uncertain after the first interview with the patient, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was not administered at the early stage. After supplying 100% oxygen, the patient recovered consciousness, however, the strength of the lower limb muscle had decreased to class II. The patient showed continued weakening of the lower limb muscle and an increase of CPK; therefore, he was diagnosed as carbon monoxide intoxication and rhabdomyolysis and then admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for conservative treatment. During the hospitalization period, continued weakening of the lower limb muscle was observed and he was diagnosed as myopathy after EMG/MCV. However, he suddenly showed altered mentality on the 20th day of hospitalization, and underwent brain MRI. T2 weighted MRI showed typically high signal intensity of both globus pallidus and periventricular white matter; therefore, he was diagnosed as delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy. This case showed delayed encephalopathy accompanied by rhabdomyolysis and myopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness.
A Case of Fentanyl Toxicity with Misused Durogesic Transdermal Patch
Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):49-52.   Published online June 30, 2013
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Fentanyl, a synthetic, highly selective opioid ${mu}$-receptor agonist, is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine. The low molecular weight, high potency, great transdermal permeation rate and lipid solubility of fentanyl make it very suitable for transdermal administration. Durogesic is a novel matrix transdermal system providing continuous systemic delivery of fentanyl. In recently, there are many reports that misused or overused fentanyl transdermal patches result in severe intoxication of fentanyl. We present a case of fentanyl toxicity with misused durogesic transdermal patch and discuss the safe and appropriate application of the patches. In conclusion, fentanyl patches should be used in opioid tolerant patients and prescribed at the lowest possible dose and titrated upward as needed. All patients and their caregivers should be educated safe application of fentanyl patches and advised to avoid exposing the patches application site to direct external heat sources, such as heating pads, or electric blankets, heat lamps, sauna, hot tubs, and others. In addition, concomittant medications that affect fentanyl's metabolism should be avoided.
A Case of Multi-organ Failure due to Acute Chromic Acid Poisoning
Hyun Min Jung, Hee Min Eun, Jin Hui Paik, Ji Hye Kim, Jun Sig Kim, Seung Baik Han
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(2):118-121.   Published online December 31, 2012
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Chromic acid is a strong metal acid and acute poisoning is very rare. However, chromic acid causes serious complications, such as skin injuries, as well as renal and hepatic failure. We report on a case of a 47-year-old male who accidentally had chromic acid spilled over his nose and face. For the first few days, he was treated with ascorbic acid and massive hydration. However, after three days, his condition began to worsen. He was treated with hemodialysis for anuria and acute renal failure, and antibiotics for pneumonia. On day 10 of hospitalization, he expired of multi-organ failure. We suggest firm control and close supervision of chromic acid in the work place, and, considering severe complications of chromic acid, we propose a nearly and aggressive treatment.
A Case of Acute Glufosinate Ammonium ($BASTA^{(R)}$) Intoxication Associated with Various Neurological Abnormalities
Jin Hui Paik, Jun Sig Kim, Hyeon Gyu Yi, Hyun Joo Park, Choong-Kun Ha, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):103-106.   Published online December 31, 2005
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BASTA is an herbicide which contains glufosinate ammonium as a main component with an anionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate, and nonselectively inhibits glutamine synthetase. It became a wildly used herbicide in Korea and its intoxication is now increasing. A 42-year old woman ingested about 300ml of BASTA in a suicide attempt. She showed unconsciousness and respiratory distress in the beginning, and later developed multiple generalized convulsions, low blood pressure, fever and diabetes insipidus. Although she became alert 12 days after the ingestion, she showed retrograde amnesia for a period of about recent 10 years. A neuropsychological test on day 22 revealed frontal lobe dysfunction, visual memory disturbance and slight decrease in visuospatial function. All these neurological abnormalities that might occur due to glufosinate ammonium were almost improved in the follow-up test performed a month later.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology