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Mi-Jin Lee 20 Articles
Multicenter Survey of Intoxication Cases in Korean Emergency Departments: 2nd Annual Report, 2009
Ae-Jin Sung, Kyung-Woo Lee, Byung-Hak So, Mi-Jin Lee, Hyun Kim, Kyung-Hye Park, Jeong-Bae Park, Seok-Ran Yeom, Seong-Beom Oh, Ji-Young You, Kyung-Won Lee, Byeong-Jo Chun, Young-Joon Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2012;10(1):22-32.   Published online June 30, 2012
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of toxic exposure cases in Korean emergency centers using a toxic exposure surveillance system-based report form and to provide guidelines for the prevention and treatment of toxic exposures. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of toxic exposure patients who had visited emergency centers from January 2009 to December 2009. Epidemiology data points for the toxic exposure cases included age, gender, type of exposure, number and kind of substances involved, reason and route of poison exposure, management of the patients in the emergency departments, and the clinical outcome. Results: A total of 3,501 patients from 12 emergency departments were enrolled in the study. 50.0% of the total exposure patients were male and 63.0% of the total cases were fatal. Acute intoxication occurred in 91.3% of the total patients and suicidal intent was the most common (43.3%) reason for exposure. The most common route of exposure was ingestion (75.9%). Of the total cases, pesticides were involved in 26.3%, sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics were involved in 22.0%, and bites and envenomations were involved in 15.7%. Conclusion: We provided a database of patients who were admitted to emergency departments after poisoning incidents. We recommend that toxicology professionals develop a classification scheme for toxicants which is adequate for Korean domestic circumstances and initiate a toxic surveillance system for all types of exposures. With support of a psychiatric surveillance system for suicidal patients and establishment of social mediation for pesticide poisoning, major reductions in poison exposures can be achieved.
Clinical Features of Acute Acetanilide Herbicide Poisoning
Cheol-Sang Park, Mi-Jin Lee, Seong-Soo Park, Won-Joon Jeong, Hyun-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(2):49-55.   Published online December 31, 2011
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Purpose: Acetanilide has been in widespread use as an amide herbicide compound. However, available data regarding acute human poisoning is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of acetanilide poisoning in order to identify the risk factors associated with severity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study encompassing the period January 2005 to December 2010, including adult ED patients suffering from acetanilide intoxication. Toxicological history, symptoms observed, clinical signs of toxicity, and laboratory test results were collected for each patient. The patients were classified into two groups for analysis, according their poisoning severity score (PSS). Resulting clinical data and prognostic variables were compared between mild-to-moderate poisoning (PSS 1/2 grades), and severe poisonings and fatalities (PSS 3/4 grades). Results: There were a total of 37 patients, including 26 alachlor, 6 s-metolachlor, 4 mefenacet, and 1 butachlor cases. The majority of patients (81.1%) were assigned PSS 1/2 grades. Changes in mental status and observation of adverse neurologic symptoms were more common in the PSS 3/4 group. The median ingested volume of amide herbicide compound was 250 ml (IQR 200-300 ml) in the PSS 3/4 group, and 80 ml (IQR 50-138 ml) in the PSS 1/2 group. Also, the median GCS observed in the PSS 3/4 group was 13 (IQR 10-14), which was markedly low as compared to a median GCS of 15 in the PSS 1/2 group. Overall mortality rate was 5.4%, and profound cardiogenic shock was observed prior to death in all fatalities. Conclusion: When compared to previous reports, acute acetanilide poisoning resulted in relatively moderate severity. The presence of neurologic manifestations, hypotension, lower GCS score, and larger ingested volumes was associated with more serious effects and mortalities.
2008 Database of Korean Toxic Exposures: A Preliminary Study
Byung-Hak So, Mi-Jin Lee, Hyun Kim, Jeong-Mi Moon, Kyung-Hye Park, Ae-Jin Sung, Seok-Ran Yeom, Seong-Beom Oh, Ji-Young You, Kyung-Woo Lee, Kyung-Won Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):51-60.   Published online December 31, 2010
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate toxic exposures in emergency centers with using a toxic exposure surveillance system-based report form as a preliminary study. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of toxic exposure patients who visited emergency centers from January to December 2008. Results: 3,157 patients from 11 emergency centers were enrolled. Males were involved in 47.9% of the total cases of exposure and in 60.1% of the cases of fatal exposure. Suicidal intent was the most common (61.0%) reason and most (87.4%) fatal exposures were suicidal. Pesticides were involved in 30.7% of the cases and sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics were involved in 20.5%. The substances most frequently involved in fatalities were pesticides, and a 48.4% fatality rate was recorded for paraquat exposure. Conclusion: The toxic exposure data showed the preliminary poisoning events in emergency centers. It is recommended that toxicology professionals should develop a toxic surveillance system and serial reporting should be performed.
Comparative Analysis of Overdose with Common Sleep-aid Medications - Doxylamine vs Diphenhydramine -
Hyun-Sik Ryu, Mi-Jin Lee, Seong-Soo Park, Won-Joon Jeong, Hyun-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(2):79-87.   Published online December 31, 2010
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Purpose: The previous studies on $H_1$ antihistamine overdose have generally been limited to cases of acute doxylamine succinate (DS) poisoning, yet there have been some studies on diphenhydramine (DPH) overdosing. But many clinicians consider the two drugs to be very similar and to have similar ingredients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the toxicologic characteristics and clinical outcomes between DS and DPH poisoning/overdose. Methods: We reviewed the medical and intensive care records of the patients with acute DS or DPH poisoning and who admitted to our emergency department from January 2008 and April 2010. We collected patient information regarding the features of the poisoning and the clinical and demographic characteristics. The patients were assessed for the clinical outcomes, the GCS, the PSS (Poisoning Severity Score) and the SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment). Results: Fifty seven patients (45 cases of DS poisoning and 12 cases of DPH poisoning) were enrolled. Compared with the DS group, the DPH group had higher incidences of intubation, serious mental change, QTc prolongation and ECG conduction abnormality (p=0.041, <0.001, 0.014 and 0.044, respectively). The DPH group had a higher PSS and a longer ICU stay. The peak CPK time and the CPK normalization time were longer for the patients with rhabdomyolysis due to DS poisoning. Conclusion: Two common $H_1$ antihistamines, doxylamine and diphenhydramine, are in the same ethanolamine-structural class, but the toxico-clinical outcomes are different according to many aspects. Therefore, clinicians could take a careful approach for the differential diagnosis and management between DS and DPH poisoning.
Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure Following an Intentional Overdose of Stacker 3 (A Caffeine-Containing Weight-Reduction Supplement)
Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2010
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"Stacker 3" is one of the most popular caffeine-containing weight-reduction supplements and it has ephedra-free properties as "Stacker 2 Ephedra-Free" in many countries, including Korea. We describe here a 26-year-old woman who took an acute intentional overdose of "Stacker 3"(approximately 50 capsules, total amount: 25 grams, as caffeine 250 mg/kg) and who had delirium, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. She had to be treated by forced diuresis and urine alkalinization, and she subsequently recovered. This is the first such case report in the medical literature.
Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Tai-Yong Hong, Sung-Soo Park, Yeon-Ho You
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):83-90.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are the most common source of human toxicity globally, causing high mortality and morbidity despite the availability of atropine as a specific antidote and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase. The primary toxicity mechanism is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and abnormal stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Thus, the symptoms (muscarinic, nicotinic, and central nervous system) result from cholinergic overactivity because of AchE inhibition. OP can also cause rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, parotitis, and hepatitis. OP therapy includes decontamination, supportive therapy, and the use of specific antidotes such as atropine and oximes. However, there has been a paucity of controlled trials in humans. Here we evaluated the literature for advances in therapeutic strategies for acute OP poisoning over the last 10 years.
Clinical Implication of Acetylcholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning
Hoon Kim, Seung-Baik Han, Jun-Sig Kim, Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):25-31.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning may be monitored by measuring the acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is important to assess severity and establish prognostic tests in the early stage of OP poisoning. The aim of this study was to look at the relationship between various clinical aspects of the OP poisoning, prognostic indicators of OP poisoning including Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, and the associated changes in AChE levels. Methods: Clinical data and initial AChE levels from thirty-seven patients with OP poisoning were prospectively reviewed from 12 teaching hospitals in South Korea from August 2005 to July 2006. Clinical manifestations at the time of arrival such as miosis, respiratory abnormality, salivation, urinary incontinence, GCS score, AVPU scale, need for intubation, and mechanical ventilation requirements were recorded. SAPS 3 was calculated using clinical data and laboratory results. Results: The median level of AChE was 9.8 (1.3-53.6) U/gHb. There was no significant difference in AChE levels between the groups with and without cholinergic symptoms. The median level of AChE of the patients who required intubation and those who did not were 3.5 U/gHb and it 19.7 U/gHb respectively (Mann-Whitney test; p<0.001). The AChE levels were also significantly different (p=0.007) in patients who needed mechanical ventilation compared to those who did not with AChE levels found to be 3.1 U/gHb and it was 14.8 U/gHb, respectively. Level of consciousness assessed using the AVPU scale was correlated with AChE levels (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.013). GCS score were correlated with AChE levels (p=0.007, Spearman's rho = 0.454). In addition, the lower the level of initial AChE, the longer the ICU stay (p=0.029, Spearman's rho=-0.380). SAPS 3 was inversely correlated with the initial AChE (p<0.001, Spearman's rho=-0.633). Conclusion: In the acute OP poisoning, low AChE levels appear to help indicate the severity of poisoning. The initial AChE level may be a useful prognostic parameter for acute OP poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Acute Organophosphate Poisoning Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation
Hwang-Jin Shin, Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Joon-Seok Park, Seong-Soo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):32-36.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: The major complication of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is respiratory failure as a result of cholinergic toxicity. Many clinicians find it difficult to predict the optimal time to initiate mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning, and as a result have tended to provide a prolonged ventilator support period. The purpose of this study is to determine any clinical predictors based on patients characteristics and laboratory findings to assist in the optimal timing of mechanical ventilator weaning. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of 44 patients with acute OP poisoning who required mechanical ventilation admitted to medical intensive care unit between July 1998 and June 2007. Patient information regarding the poisoning, clinical data and demographic features, APACHE II score, laboratory data, and serial cholinesterase (chE) levels were collected. Base on the time period of MV, the patients were divided into two groups: early group (wean time < 7 days, n = 28) and delayed group (${geq}$ 7 days, n = 16). Patients were assessed for any clinical characteristics and predictors associated with the MV weaning period. Results: During the study period, 44 patients were enrolled in this study. We obtained the sensitivity and specificity values of predictors in the late weaning group. APACHE II score and a reciprocal convert of hypoxic index but specificity (83.8%) is only APACHE II score. Also, the chE concentration (rho = -0.517, p = 0.026) and APACHE II score (rho = 0.827, p < 0.001) correlated with a longer mechanical ventilation duration. Conclusion: In patients with acute OP poisoning who required mechanical ventilation, the APACHE II scoring system on a point scale of less than 17 and decrements in cholinesterase levels on 1-3 days were good predictors of delayed MV weaning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Dichlorvos Poisoning in Korea
Mi-Jin Lee, Joon-Seok Park, Woon-Yong Kwon, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Purpose: Dichlorvos has been in widespread use as an organophosphate (OP) insecticide compound. The purpose of this study was to access the epidemiology and clinical features of dichlorvos in Korea. Methods: This was a 38 multi-center prospective study of dichlorvos poisoning using surveys, a structural reporting system and review of hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. A total of 54 patients with acute dichlorvos poisoning on a national basis were enrolled. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of dichlorvos poisoning. In addition, the clinical features of dichlorvos poisoning were compared with others OP compounds. Results: During the study period, compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos (22.7%), methidathion (8.4%), and phosphamidon (6.7%). In acute dichlorvos poisoning, all ingestion routes were oral. Intentional poisoning involved 74.1% of cases. The common initial complaints involved gastrointestinal (64.8%), systemic (61.1%), central or peripheral nervous system (53.7%), and respiratory symptoms (50.0%). The median arrival time to hospital after dichlorvos poisoning was 2.6 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 7.1 days. 2-PAM was administered in 35 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered in 30 patients with a mean dose of 62.8 mg/day (maximal 240 mg/day). Overall mortality rate for dichlorvos poisonings were 14.8% (8/54). Immediate causes for death included sudden cardiac arrest or ventricular dysrhythmias (50%), multi-organ failure (25%), acute renal failure (12.5%), and unknown causes (12.5%). Conclusion: When compared to previous reports, dichlorvos poisoning displayed relatively moderate severity. The presence of a lower GCS score, altered mental status, serious dysrhythmias, systemic shock, acute renal failure, and respiratory complications upon presentation were associated with a more serious and fatal poisoning.
Clinical Aspects of the Chlorophenoxy Herbicide Intoxicated Patients
Young-Soon Cho, Ho-Jung Kim, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):112-118.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: There have been relatively few reports of chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1 August 2005 to the 31 July 2006. Results: 24 patients were enrolled during the study periods. Their mean age was 55.7 years old. The median amount of the chlorophenoxy herbicide intoxicated is 150 mL. The most frequent location where the patients obtained and took the chlorophenoxy herbicide was their home. Frequent compounds involving chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning were dicamba(66.7%), MCPP(16.7%), and 2,4-D(12.5%). The most common symptom of the patients was confusion and vomiting. 16 patients(66.7%) intended to suicide. 3 patients out of 24 patients(13.0%) were died. Conclusion: There were 24 patients intoxicated by the chlorophenoxy herbicide during the study periods. The mortality rate was 13.0%. The suicidal attempts and the numbers of death involving chlorophenoxy herbicide were high in Korea.
The Study of Pyrethroid Intoxication: The basis of Agrichemical Intoxication Survey in 2005
Ah-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):99-105.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Purpose: Pyrethroid is an insecticide that produces moderate intoxication in mammals, with neither exposure to skin nor inhalation resulting in severe systemic manifestations. In 2005 we made a nationwide survey of agrichemical human intoxication. The object of this study is to analyze pyrethroid intoxications based on the 2005 survey. Methods: We prospectively collected data from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006 by a standard investigation protocol. We analyzed demographic data, exposure data (cause, amount, ingredients), clinical features, and courses. Results: A total of 125 cases of pyrethroid intoxication were surveyed. The mean patient age was $56.78{pm}16.158$ years old, and the mean amount ingested was $121.85{pm}110.732ml$. Patients were classified into four severity groups according to symptoms and mental status: the asymptomatic group (27 patients, 21.6%), the mild symptom group (48, 38.4%), the moderate symptom group (21, 16.8%), and the severe symptom group (7, 5.6%). There were statistically significant differences in mental status, severity, and mean ICU days between two groups. Admission days by severity grade for the asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe symptom groups were $5.49{pm}16.051,;3.65{pm}4.143,;4.59{pm}3.335,;and;8.14{pm}7.199days$, respectively (p=0.047). Conclusion: Nationwide surveillance was extremely telling in uncovering a high frequency of agrichemical intoxication in Korea. In pyrethroid intoxication, severity grading can be a useful prognostic tool.
Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Carbamate Poisoning in Korea
Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Gil-Joon Suh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and the prognostic factors of carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, we investigated the demographic feature, dose of exposure, time of exposure, alcohol intake, route of exposure, reason of exposure, site of exposure, pre-existing medical condition, time from exposure to emergency department (ED), transfer from other hospitals, vital sign at ED arrival, symptom or sign at ED arrival, and result of care of the patients who visited the ED of thirty-eight hospitals in Korea. According to the result of care, we divided the patients into two groups, the survival and the dead. To evaluated the prognostic factors, we calculated the odds ratio of each factor for the survival. Results: Among the sixty-eight patients, fifty-five patients (80.9%) were survival and thirteen patients (19.1%) were dead. The patients in the dead were older than the patients in the survival. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of the patients in the dead was lower than the GCS in the survival. The odds ratio of the GCS at ED arrival for the survival was 1.58 (95% CI; 1.23-2.05). Other factors showed no statistical significances. Conclusion: The GCS at emergency department arrival was the prognosis factor of the carbamate poisoned patients who visited emergency departments. If the carbamate poisoned patients showed altered mentalities, they should be provided intensive care, immediately.
Clinical Aspects of the Organochlorine Intoxicated Patients
Jun-Ho Cho, Bum-Jin Oh, Joo-Hyun Suh, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Hyung-Keun Roh, In-Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):15-20.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To analyze the general characteristics and clinical aspects of the organochlorine intoxicated patients in Korea. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the organochlorine intoxicated patients visiting to the 38 emergency medical centers in Korea from the 1, Aug. 2005 to the 31, Jul. 2006. Results: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The mean age of patients was 55.1 years old. The mean amount of the organochlorine intoxicated is 246.1 mL. The most frequent place where the patients got and took the organochlorine was their home. Twenty eight patients(73.7%) intended to suicide. Nine patients out of 38 patients(23.7%) were died and they all intended to suicide. Conclusion: There were 38 patients intoxicated by the organochlorine during the study periods. The suicidal attempts and the number of the dead were higher in Korea than the developed countries.
Organophosphate-Pyrethroid Mixtures Poisoning
Dae-Young Hong, Kwang-Je Baek, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh, Jun-Sig Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):21-26.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Owing to organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures are widely used, suicidal or unintentional poisoning is common. But there have been relatively few reports of poisoning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the severity and toxicity between organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning and single organophosphate poisoning. Methods: From August 2005 to July 2006, 65 patients presented with organophosphate-pyrethroid mixtures poisoning to emergency medical center. Date were gathered by report form it was drawn up. Results: 65 patients were enrolled in 28 hospitals and their mean age was $56.5{pm}16.2$ years old. The most common cause of poisoning was suicide, in 52 cases(80%). Chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin, malathion-esfenvalerate were the most frequent chemicals involved, and the mean ingestion amount was 135.4ml. The most common symptom of the patients was nausea/vomiting, in 16 patients. The average GCS score was 13. The mean ICU stay was $4.4{pm}5.2$ days, and mortality was 3.1%. Conclusion: The severity and toxicity of organophosphate-pyrethroid mixture poisoning were lower than that of single organophosphate poisoning.
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Pure Organophosphate Compounds Poisoning - 38 Multi-centers Survey in South Korea -
Mi-Jin Lee, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Sung-Woo Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):27-35.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: Organophosphate (OP) compounds insecticides are the most commonly associated with serious human toxicity all over the world. The aim of this study was to identify sociocultural factors that contribute to high incidence of pure OP poisoning and prevent OP poisoning in order to reduce the factors responsible for deaths in South Korea. Methods: This is the 38 multi-centers survey and prospective study of pure OP poisoning by structural reporting system and hospital records from August 2005 to July 2006. 238 patients with acute pure OP poisoning were enrolled. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: The mean age was $55.32{pm}17.3$ years old. The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence(85.7%). Frequent compounds involving pure OP poisoning were dichlorvos(22.7%), methidathion(8.4%), and phosphamidon(6.7%). Intentional poisoning was 77.9%. The most frequently route of exposure was ingestion(94.5%). The mean arrival time to hospital after poisoning was 12.7 hours and mean hospitalization duration was 12.9 days. 2-PAM was administered to 101 patients in mean doses of 6.3 g/day intravenously. Atropine was administered to 81 patients in mean doses of 74.6 mg/day (maximal 910 mg/day). The presence of lower level of GCS score, respiratory complications, hypotension, acute renal failure, and serious dysrhythmia was associated with serious and fatal poisoning. Overall final mortality in pure OP poisoning was 9.7%(23/238). Conclusion: This study highlights the problem of pure OP poisoning in South Korea as a basic national survey. Futhermore this might help the establishment of strict policies availability of OP and the statistics of OP poison exposure in South Korea.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.
Time-variable Analysis of Cholinesterase Levels in Patients with Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Han-Joon Kim, Kyu-Nam Park, Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):113-121.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Purpose: Previous studies have reported that plasma cholinesterase (AchE) concentration can serve as a useful prognostic parameter in cases of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning. However, there has been considerable disagreement regarding the degree of its prognostic value. Earlier cross-sectional and one- time point studies were plagued with methodologic flaws, making it difficult to interpret their results. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of time-variable cholinesterase levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in OP poisoning. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to our emergency department between March 1998 and Sep 2006. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Patients were assessed for clinical outcomes and AchE concentrations on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and on the final day. Results: During the study period, 58 patients were enrolled in this study. There was a statistically significant difference in the AchE differentials on 1-3 days for patients requiring mechanical ventilation and for patients with mild poisoning (p<0.05). Also, the decrease in the log AchE concentration correlated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation (r=-0.411, p=0.002). Conclusion: In severe OP poising, measurements of time-variable AchE concentrations can be helpful in the prediction of mortality, the development of intermediate syndrome, and duration of mechanical ventilation.
A Case Report of Saliva-type Hyperamylasemia in Mad Honey Poisoning
Kun-Woo Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Mi-Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):166-169.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Poisonings caused by 'mad honey' are known to occur in response to grayanotoxins, which bind to sodium channels in the cell membrane, increasing membrane sodium permeability and preventing inactivation. Mild symptoms of mad honey intoxication are dizziness, weakness, hypersalivation, nausea, vomiting, and paresthesia. Severe intoxication, however, leads to serious cardiac manifestations such as atrioventricular block, dose-dependent hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression. Atropine and vasoactive drugs improve symptoms of both bradycardia and respiratory rate depression. We report an unusual case of saliva-type hyperamylasemia in a mad honey poisoning patient who developed clinically significant bradycardia. She recovered fully within 3 days following atropine administration and medical treatment.
A Case of Acute Dapsone Poisoning Complicated with Methylene Blue-induced Hemolytic Anemia
Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(2):170-174.   Published online December 31, 2006
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Methylene blue is a basic thiazine dye frequently used for histologic staining. In clinical toxicology settings, it is also used to treat clinically significant methemoglobinemia. It has dose-dependent oxidation or reduction properties, acting as a reducing agent at lower doses and as an oxidizing agent at higher doses. Hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia are known toxic effects of methylene blue treatment that have been reported clinically. A 42-year-old woman developed significant methemoglobinemia after acute dapsone overdose; she was treated appropriately with intravenous methylene blue in the therapeutic range. The patient's methemoglobin levels returned to normal. However, 2-4 days later she was noted to have rebound methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. A repeat of Coomb's test and other anemia workups were negative. For management of methylene blue-induced hemolytic anemia, she was administered steroid therapy, N-acetylcysteine, and a blood transfusion. She ultimately recovered, and there were no long-term sequelae from the methylene blue poisoning.
Survival Curve Analysis in Patients with Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Mi-Jin Lee, Kyu-Nam Park, Won-Jae Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: The main cause of death due to acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is believed acute respiratory failure caused by cholinergic reactions. Recently, advances in respiratory and intensive care make it possible to maintain the respiratory function of patients with OP poisoning, but the mortality rates remain high. The present study clarified the hemodynamics of patients with acute lethal OP poisoning. The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring intensive care. Methods: We reviewed medical and intensive care records of patients with acute OP poisoning admitted to emergency department and ICU between March 1998 and Aug 2005. We collected patient information regarding poisoning, clinical, and demographic features. Results: During the study period, 67 subjects treated with intensive care and ventilator management in addition to gastric decontamination standard therapy with atropine and 2-PAM. Of 67 patients, 13 died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a steep decline in the cumulative survival to $86.6\%$ during the first week. Mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg within the first 24 hours was recognized as a poor prognostic indicators among mechanical ventilated patients. Conclusion: Most OP poisoning-related deaths occurred within the first week of poisoning. Mean arterial pressure lower than 60 mmHg might be the best predictor of poor outcome. We speculated that the refractory hypotension is the leading cause of death in patients with lethal OP poisoning that receiving mechanical ventilation and maximal supportive care.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology