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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology


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Min Hong Choa 7 Articles
Acute Nicotine Poisoning due to Electronic Cigarette Liquid: Systematic Review of Case Reports
Si Yong Yang, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Hyun Soo Chung, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):51-56.   Published online December 31, 2020
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute nicotine poisoning by liquid nicotine in electronic cigarettes is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. The current systematic review aimed to determine the harm of acute nicotine poisoning by reviewing published case reports. Methods: An online literature search with PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed database was performed to identify relevant studies addressing acute nicotine poisoning with electronic cigarettes. Two investigators searched the case reports written in English or Korean. Results: Twenty-six cases were included in this study. The routes of intoxication included ingestion in 18 cases, intravenous injection in three cases, subcutaneous injection in two cases, and ocular exposure in two cases. Ten cases had a cardiac arrest, and seven of them died. Seven out of 12 cases with intentional poisoning had a cardiac arrest. Nine children under 18 years were reported, and three of them had a cardiac arrest. Sixteen cases without a cardiac arrest recovered well, except for one case with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion: The authors reviewed the risks of electronic cigarette liquid in terms of acute poisoning through a systematic review. The nicotine solution of an e-cigarette can be life-threatening in cases of acute poisoning. Therefore, active emergency treatment with early recognition is necessary. In addition, various management methods and regulations for preventing acute nicotine poisoning, such as restriction of distribution and nicotine concentration, should be considered.


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  • Electronic Nicotine, Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems, and Liquid Use by Flavoring and Nicotine Concentrations
    Yeun Soo Yang, Hyeon Jeong Lim, Unchong Kim, Kyoungin Na, Heejin Kimm
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2023; 14(3): 101.     CrossRef
Systematic Review of Vitamin B12 Regimen for Patient with Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord Following Nitrous Oxide Abuse
Jin Seok Chung, Min Hong Choa, Sung Phil Chung, In Cheol Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):79-85.   Published online December 31, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin B12 treatment in subacute combined degeneration (SCD) caused by nitrous oxide (N2O) abuse. Methods: Relevant literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and KoreaMed. All the literature that was relevant to human use of vitamin B12 treatment for SCD caused by N2O abuse was included. Case reports were excluded if the treatment regimens were not precisely described. The literature search was conducted by two investigators during September 2019 for the final publication period. The languages of the publications were restricted to English and Korean. Results: Twenty-three published articles that contained 24 cases were included. Sixteen cases among them were treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 of 1 mg/day and the rest received different doses or routes. Although most cases described significant clinical improvements, one case showed no beneficial effect due to the patient's noncooperation. Another case showed adverse events, including spinal myoclonus, following vitamin B12 therapy. Conclusion: Vitamin B12 has been broadly used for the treatment of SCD caused by N2O abuse. However, most of the relevant studies were case reports that reported various regimens of vitamin B12 administration. Further studies are needed to establish a standard regimen of vitamin B12 because the incidence of N2O abuse may increase in South Korea.
Usefulness of Predictors for Hepatotoxicity in Acetaminophen Poisoning Patient
Eun Young Kim, Sung Phil Chung, Dong Ryul Ko, Tae Young Kong, Je Sung You, Min Hong Choa, Min Joung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):149-156.   Published online December 31, 2018
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hepatotoxicity could be predicted early using biochemical markers in patients with acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning and to assess the usefulness of predictive factors for acute liver injury or hepatotoxicity. Methods: This study was a retrospective observational study involving a medical records review. The participants were patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with AAP overdose at two hospitals over a 10-year period. Demographic data, age, time from ingestion to visit, initial AAP level, initial hepatic aminotransferases, and initial prothrombin time were recorded. Acute liver injury was defined as a peak serum ALT >50 U/L or double the admission value, and hepatotoxicity was defined as a peak ALT >1,000 U/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to compare the prognostic performance among variables. Results: A total of 97 patients were admitted to the ED with AAP overdose, of whom 26 had acute liver injury and 6 had hepatotoxicity. Acute liver injury was associated with the time interval after taking the drug, and hepatotoxicity was associated with the initial PT and the ALT level. The scoring system proposed by the authors has a significant ability to predict both acute liver injury and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: To predict the prognosis of AAP poisoning patients, the time interval after taking AAP was important, and initial prothrombin time and ALT level were useful tests. Also a scoring system combining variables may be useful.
Comparison of Silymarin, Penicillin, N-acetylcysteine in Patient with Amatoxin Poisoning: A Systematic Review
Min Woo Choi, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Min Hong Choa, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):33-41.   Published online June 30, 2018
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Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of pharmacologic treatment of amatoxin poisoning patients. Methods: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, KoreaMed, KISS and KMBASE. Studies relevant to human use of pharmacologic therapy including silymarin, penicillin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for amanita poisoning were included. Case reports, letters, editorials and papers with insufficient information were excluded. Comparison of clinical outcomes (especially mortality and liver transplantation rate) in each study was analyzed. Results: The final analysis included 13 retrospective studies. None of these studies showed direct comparisons of individual agents. Among 12 studies comparing silymarin vs penicillin, eight showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among eight studies comparing silymarin with NAC, six showed clinical superiority of silymarin. Among seven studies of NAC vs penicillin, five showed clinical superiority of NAC. Conclusion: This systematic review suggested that clinical superiority of various pharmacological agents used to treat amatoxin poisoning is debatable. Nevertheless, the available evidence suggests it is reasonable to consider combinations of multiple agents for patients with amanita poisoning. Further studies are required to establish a treatment regimen for amanita poisoning.
Fomepizole for Ethylene Glycol or Methanol Poisoning in Children
Ha Na Min, Yoon Jung Hwang, Dong Ryul Ko, Young Seon Joo, Tae Young Kong, Min Hong Choa, In Cheol Park, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):79-85.   Published online December 31, 2017
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse effect of fomepizole in the management of acute ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning in children. Methods: Databases such as PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed were searched using terms related to fomepizole, ethylene glycol, methanol and pediatric. All studies, regardless of study design, reporting effectiveness or safety endpoints in children were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Only reports written in English or Korean languages were included. The reference search was performed by two authors. Results: Twenty-two relevant literatures were finally included. They were one narrative review, 4 retrospective case series, and 17 case reports (19 cases). Case reports were classified as 5 fomepizole only, 8 fomepizole with other therapies, and 6 no fomepizole. All patients from the literatures were fully recovered without long term sequelae. Adverse effects of fomepizole were reported including anaphylaxis, thrombophlebitis and nystagmus. Conclusion: There are insufficient literatures regarding fomepizole treatment in children with ethylene glycol or methanol poisoning. The benefits or harms are not clearly established based on the clinical evidences. More prospective comparative studies are required in the future.
A Case Report of Envenomation and Injury by a Poisonous Spine of A Marble Motoro (Potamotrygon Motoro)
Min Hong Choa, Seung Ho Jun, Duk Hwan Kim, Jong Su Park, Su Jin Kim, Yun Sik Hong, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):46-48.   Published online June 30, 2013
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Potamotrygon motoro, also known as the Marble motoro, is a potamodromous freshwater ray native to the basins of the Amazon River. Marble motoros were introduced to South Korea in the 2000s, and, because they are easy to raise, were sold as aquarium fish. The aim of this report is to illustrate a new case involving envenomation by a Marble motoro. A 35-year-old commercial aquarium assistant came to the hospital after being pricked by a Marble motoro. The clinical picture in this case showed acute local pain with minimal systemic manifestations. This patient recovered after receiving symptomatic treatment and wound care. This case of envenomation accentuates the potential for injury among people coming in contact with a venomous Marble motoro.
A Case of Phenypropanolamine Induced Myocardial Injury
Jong Woo Park, Min Hong Choa, Joon Seok Park, Kwang Hyun Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2003;1(1):43-46.   Published online June 30, 2003
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Phenypropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathetic amine used in over-the-counter cold remedies and weight-control preparations. The side effects are hypertension, dysrhythmias, stroke, etc. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking steps to remove PPA from all drug products and has requested that all drug companies discontinue marketing products containg PPA due to high risk of hemorrhage stroke. But, in Korea now, patinets take products containg PPA with over the counter. We report here the case of PPA induced myocardial injury in a young woman who takes overdose for suicide.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology