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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology


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Si Jin Lee 3 Articles
Continuous Control of Acetaminophen Poisoning after Implementation of Regulation for Ease Access of Acetaminophen: Cohort Study from Emergency Department Based in-depth Injury Surveillance
Seung Jik Jo, Hyun Young Gang, Si Jin Lee, Gyu Hyun Bae, Eui Jung Lee, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):57-65.   Published online December 31, 2020
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Since 2012, acetaminophen can be accessed easily not only at pharmacies but also at convenience stores. The relationship between the easy access of acetaminophen and the risk of poisoning has been controversial. Several studies also reported different results regarding the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after access to acetaminophen was relaxed. This study examined the long-term effects on the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after easy access to acetaminophen was implemented. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of an emergency department (ED)-based in-depth Injury Surveillance Cohort by the Korea Center for Disease Control and prevention from 2011 to 2018. Poisoning cases were selected from the Cohort, and the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning and the characteristics of the cases of acetaminophen poisoning were analyzed. The purchase path and the amount of ingestion in acetaminophen poisoning were sub-analyzed from data of six EDs. Results: Of 57,326 poisoning cases, 4.0% (2,272 cases) were acetaminophen poisoning. Of 2,272 cases of acetaminophen poisoning, 42.8% (974 cases) required in-patient care after ED management. Two hundred and sixty-four of these 964 cases required intensive care. The rates of cases that required in-patient treatment and the rates of cases that required intensive care increased from 29.4% in 2011 to 48.1% in 2018, and from 3.1% in 2011 to 15.2% in 2018, respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001). In the poisoning group with in-depth toxic surveillance (n=15,908), the incidence and proportion of acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning increased from 55 cases per year to 187 cases per year and 4.9% to 6.1%, respectively (p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The most common age group of acetaminophen poisoning was teenagers, which is different from the most common age group of other pharmaceutical agents: the middle age group of 40-49 years (p<0.001). Of 15,908 in-depth toxic surveillance patients, 693 patients had AAP poisoning, of whom 377 cases (54.2%) purchased acetaminophen from a non-pharmacy. The proportions of the purchase path from non-pharmacy were 41.4% at 2011-12 and 56.4% (2013-18) (p=0.004). The amount of acetaminophen ingestion was 13.5±14.3 g at 2011-12 and 13.9±15.1 g at 2013-18 (p=0.794). Conclusion: Although the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning did not increase remarkably in the short term after the implementation of the new regulation, the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning has increased slightly during the study period of 2017-18. In addition, the proportion of the purchase path from non-pharmacies has increased since the emergence of new regulations for the easy access of acetaminophen in 2012. The incidence of acetaminophen poisoning might have been affected after the increasing accessibility of acetaminophen in convenience stores. Continuous control of acetaminophen poisoning is required. Furthermore, the prevention of acetaminophen poisoning should be focused on teenagers with specialized school education programs.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Analysis of 2011-2020 intentional drug poisoning in children and adolescents
    Jin Seok Park, Jin Seong Cho, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jae Ho Jang, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jea Yeon Choi
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal.2023; 10(4): 132.     CrossRef
Extracorporeal Life Support in Acute Poisoning
Si Jin Lee, Gap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee, Do Hyun Kim, Kyoung Yae Park, Ji Young Lee, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2018
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Purpose: Cardiovascular or respiratory complications of acute intoxication are the most common causes of mortality. Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) or specific antidotes help manage these cardiac or respiratory complications in acute intoxication. On the other hand, some cases do not respond to ACLS or antidotes and they require some special treatment, such as extracorporeal life support (ECLS). ECLS will provide the chance of recovery from acute intoxication. This study examined the optimal timing of ECLS in acute intoxication cases. Methods: This paper is a brief report of a case series about ECLS in acute poisoning. The cases of ECLS were reviewed and the effects of ECLS on the blood pressure and serum lactate level of the patients were analyzed. Results: A total of four cases were reviewed; three of them were antihypertensive agent-induced shock, and one was respiratory failure after the inhalation of acid. The time range of ECLS application was 4.8-23.5 hours after toxic exposure. The causes of ECLS implementation were one for recurrent cardiac arrest, two for shock that did not respond to ACLS, and one for respiratory failure that did not respond to mechanical ventilator support. Three patients showed an improvement in blood pressure and serum lactate level and were discharged alive. In case 1, ECLS was stared at 23.5 hours post toxic exposure; the patient died due to refractory shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion: The specific management of ECLS should be considered when a patient with acute intoxication does not recovery from shock or respiratory failure despite ACLS, antidote therapies, or mechanical ventilator support. ECLS improved the hemodynamic and ventilator condition in complicated poisoned patients. The early application of ECLS may improve the tissue perfusion state and outcomes of these patients before the toxic damage becomes irreversible.
Self-poisoning as a Target Group for Prevention of Suicide
Moon Hwan Kwak, Hyun Young Kang, Si Jin Lee, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim, Eu Jung Lee, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):93-101.   Published online December 31, 2018
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Purpose: The Korean government has tried to decrease the suicide death rate over the last decade. Suicide attempts, particularly non-fatal attempts, are the most powerful known risk factor for a completed suicide. An analysis of suicide attempt methods will help establish the effective preventive action of suicide. Fit prevention according to the method of suicide attempt may decrease the incidence of suicide death. Self-poisoning is suggested as a major method of both suicide attempts and suicide death. The aim of this study was to determine if a self-poisoning patient is a suitable target for the prevention of the suicide. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort, which included patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a self-harm or suicide attempt from Jan 2013 to Dec 2017. The proportion of methods in suicide attempts, psychological consultation, and fatality according to the suicide attempt method were analyzed. The types of poison were also analyzed. Results: Poisoning was the most common method of suicide attempts (52.1%). The rate of psychological consultations were 18.8% for all patients and 29.1% for poison patients (p<0.001). The rate of mortality in poisoning was 0.6%. Psychological consultation was performed more frequently in admission cases than discharged cases. The most common materials of poisons was psychological medicines and sedatives that had been prescribed at clinics or hospital. Conclusion: Self-poisoning is a major method of suicide attempt with a high rate of psychiatric consultation, low mortality rate, versus others methods. The prevention of suicide death for suicide attempts may focus on self-poisoning, which is the major method of suicide attempts. A suitable aftercare program for self-poisoning may be an effective method for preventing suicide if an early diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders through psychiatric consultation can be made, and early connection to social prevention program for non-fatal patients are possible.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology