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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Sinae Won 3 Articles
Laboratory analysis of acute acetaminophen overdose patients in Emergency Medical Centers: including analysis of one toxicological laboratory data
In Chan Kim, Sinae Won, Arum Lee, Haeun Jung, Jeongsun Lee, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):31-37.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.31
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Purpose: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely available drug responsible for a large part of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in developed countries. Although acetaminophen overdose cases in Korea are being continuously reported, there are no reports related to the level of this drug in the patient's blood or of laboratory analysis at emergency departments (ED). This study sought to analyze the acetaminophen overdose cases at a toxicological laboratory and to survey APAP analysis services offered at select EDs. Methods: We analyzed the demographic and analytic data at a toxicological laboratory run by the National Emergency Medical Center (NMC) in 2019-2020. We surveyed the APAP laboratory service in the 38 regional emergency medical centers (EMCs) and 68 local EMCs near the toxicological laboratory. Results: We studied 175 acute poisoning cases (112 women) with positive blood APAP results (mean age 47.0±24.1 years). Suicide attempts comprised 40.0% of the cases and 30.3% APAP overdose events. In the univariate analysis, we observed that patients were significantly younger, with fewer underlying medical diseases. There were a higher number of APAP overdose events, more favorable initial mental status, more toxic quantity intake in the above treatment line group (p<0.05), In multivariate analysis, the toxic amount intake was significantly more frequent in the above treatment line group (p<0.01). Hospital APAP analysis services were available in six EMCs (3/38 regional and 3/68 local). The hospital blood APAP level reporting intervals were shorter than outside-hospital laboratory services (p<0.01, regional 7.0±3.0 vs. 40.6±27.5, local 5.3±3.1 vs. 57.9±45.1 hours). The NMC toxicological laboratory reporting interval was shorter than the other outside-hospital laboratories (p<0.01, regional 5.7±0.6 vs. 50.2±22.7 local 7.5±3.0 vs. 70.5±41.5 hours). Conclusion: Over the treatment line group, toxic amount intake was significantly more frequent. Only six of 106 EMCs have their own APAP analysis service in their hospitals.
Zolpidem Detection and Blood Level in Acute Poisoning-suspected Patients in Emergency Departments: Review of 229 Cases
Jaehyung Yu, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Jeonghun Yeom, Arum Lee, Na-Youn Park, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):118-125.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.118
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Purpose: Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs (including zolpidem) are associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation. Considering the wide usage of zolpidem, this drug should be considered a possible etiology for stupor or coma in any patient exposed to this drug. However, there are no reports on zolpidem blood levels in emergency department patients in Korea. We therefore reviewed the analyzed data of a toxicology laboratory at one university affiliated hospital. Methods: The sex, age, chief symptoms, suspiciousness of poisoning, and presumption of poison were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2019. The detection frequency and level of zolpidem in the patient blood were compared to the mental changes presented, which is the main consequence of zolpidem. Results: A total of 229 toxicological analyses, requested to a toxicological laboratory at one university affiliated hospital, were reviewed. Among 229 patients, the mean age was 54.3±20.7 years old with 113 women and 116 men. 8.7% of patients have psychiatric illness and 39.7% were poisoned intentionally. The chief symptoms detected were: mental change 55.0%, gastrointestinal 14.4%, cardiovascular 10.5%, focal neurological 7.4%, respiratory 3.5%, none 8.7%, and unknown 0.4%. A request for detailed reports revealed that causative poisons were specified only in 20.1% cases. Zolpidem was detected in 22.3% cases (51/229), with median blood level 1.26 mg/L (interquartile 0.1, 5.06 mg/L) and urine 0.90 mg/L (interquartile 0.11, 5.6 mg/L). Furthermore, zolpidem was more frequently detected in toxicology analysis of patients where mental change was the primary symptom, as compared to other symptoms (32.5% vs. 9.7%, p<0.01). Conclusion: This study reported the blood level of zolpidem in suspected poisoning patients admitted to the emergency department.
Antidotes Stocking and Delivery for Acute Poisoning Patients at 20 Emergency Departments in Korea 2015-2017
Seungmin Lee, Han Deok Youn, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Kyung Hwan Kim, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):131-140.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.131
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Purpose: The National Emergency Medical Center has been running a project for the storage and delivery of antidotes for acute poisoning patients of the Department of Health and Welfare, Korea. This study analyzed the results of this project over the past two years. Methods: The requests received by the National Emergency Medical Center and the data on the delivery process were analyzed. Results: This study analyzed a total of 121 patients with acute poisoning, who were requested to receive an antidote reserved at 20 key hospitals in 2015-2017, and whose age was $52.3{pm}23.5;years$; old; 54 were women. Intentional poisoning were 58.7%, and the home was the most common place of exposure (66.9%). The toxic substances were chemicals (32.2%), pesticides (27.3%), medicines (24.8%), and snake venom (4.1%). The patient's poison severity score was $2.4{pm}0.7$ (median 3) indicating moderate-to-severe toxicity. Antidote administration was the cases treated in key hospitals 67.8% (82/121), in which transferred patients accounted for 57.3% (47/82). After receiving an antidote request from a hospital other than the key hospitals, the median was 75.5 minutes (range 10 to 242 minutes) until the antidote reached the patient, and an average of 81.5 minutes was required. The results of emergency care were intensive care unit (70.3%), general wards (13.2%), death (10.7%), and discharge from emergency department (5.0%). Conclusion: This study showed that the characteristics of acute poisoning patients treated with an antidote were different from previous reports of poisoned patients in the emergency department, and basic data on the time required for delivery from key hospitals was different.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology