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Sung Oh Hwang 9 Articles
Incidence and Features of Cognitive Dysfunction Identified by Using Mini-mental State Examination at the Emergency Department among Carbon Monoxide-poisoned Patients with an Alert Mental Status
Hyun Youk, Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Sung Hoon Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyung Il Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):115-121.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.115
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Purpose: Because carbon monoxide (CO)-intoxicated patients with an alert mental status and only mild cognitive dysfunction may be inadequately assessed by traditional bedside neurologic examination in the emergency department (ED), they may not receive appropriate treatment. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the incidence and features of cognitive dysfunction using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) in ED patients with CO poisoning with alert mental status. We conducted a retrospective review of 43 consecutive mild CO poisoned patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 based on documentation by the treating emergency physician in the ED between July 2014 and August 2015. Results: Cognitive dysfunction, defined as a score of less than 24 in the MMSE-K, was diagnosed in six patients (14%) in the ED. In the MMSE-K, orientation to time, memory recall, and concentration/calculation showed greater impairments. The mean age was significantly older in the cognitive dysfunction group than the non-cognitive dysfunction group (45.3 yrs vs. 66.5 yrs, p<0.001). Among the initial symptoms, experience of a transient change in mental status before ED arrival was significantly more common in the cognitive dysfunction group (32.4% vs. 100%, p=0.003). Conclusion: Patients with CO poisoning and an alert mental status may experience cognitive dysfunction as assessed using the MMSE-K during the early stages of evaluation in the ED. In the MMSE-K, orientation to time, memory recall, and concentration/calculation showed the greatest impairment.
Evaluation of Cardiac Function by Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Myocardial Injury Secondary to Organophosphate Poisoning
Yoonsuk Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyung Il Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):62-70.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: Cardiac complications may occur in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisoning. However, a few studies regarding patterns of cardiac toxicity as determined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) after exposure to OP have been reported. In the current study, the authors examined cardiac functions using TTE in patients with myocardial injury caused by exposure to OP. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 16 consecutive cases of OP poisoning with myocardial injury (defined as elevated troponin I within 48 hours of arrival at the regional emergency center in South Korea and diagnosed and treated at the center from January 2012 to November 2014. Results: TTE was performed in 11 (69%) of the 16 patients with an elevated troponin I (TnI) level within 48 hours. Of these 11 patients, 5 patients (45.5%) exhibited reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 3 exhibited regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). Two patients (18.2%) had both reduced systolic function and RWMA. Two of the 5 patients with reduced EF returned to normal systolic function, however two patients did not regain normal systolic function after admission. One patient expired due to multiple organ failure, and 4 patients were transferred with a moribund status. Twelve of 15 patients who survived to discharge (at 4 to 35 months) were followed. Five of these patients died during follow-up and 7 survived without further complications. Conclusion: OP can cause reversible cardiac dysfunction including reduced systolic function and RWMA. Serum TnI may be useful for initial assessment of cardiac function during the workup of patients suffering from OP poisoning. After the initial assessment of cardiac enzyme, further evaluation with TTE in patients with abnormal cardiac enzyme will be necessary to understand the cardiac toxicity.
Comparing the Possible Complications of Endoscopy Dependent on Time in Caustic Poisoned Patients
Jin Geul Choi, Oh Hyun Kim, Hyun Kim, Dong Keon Lee, Jin Go, Tae Hoon Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):70-76.   Published online December 31, 2014
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Purpose: Endoscopy has been recommended as a primary procedure for determining the extent of damage and prognosis in patients with caustic ingestions. Endoscopy within the first 24 hours has been suggested, however, such immediate endoscopy is not always possible. Therefore, we wanted to determine complications and possible delayed sequelae after the endoscopy performed dependent on time, including less than 24 hours and more than 24 hours, after ingestion of relatively high toxic caustic agents. Methods: From January 2005 to May 2013, 105 consecutive patients were diagnosed with caustic poisoning in the emergency department of the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital. Out of 95 patients who underwent endoscopy, while excluding 49 patients who ingested sodium hypochlorite and 15 patients due to insufficient data, 41 patients were ultimately included. We compared general characteristics, complications related to endoscopy, late sequelae, total admission length, and mortality between two groups. Results: Twenty eight patients (68.3%) were diagnosed with acid ingestion. Median endoscopy time was 17.8 (IQR 9.7-36.9) hours and performed in 16 patients (39%) after 24 hours. There were no complications, such as perforation and bleeding in either endoscopy within 24 hours group or endoscopy after 24 hours group. In addition, no difference in ingested materials, endoscopy grade, or late sequelae was observed between endoscopy within 24 hours group and endoscopy after 24 hours group. Conclusion: No difference in complications and late sequelae was observed between endoscopy within 24 hours group and endoscopy after 24 hours group when endoscopy was performed based on a clinician's assessment.
Acute Pancreatitis after Carbamate Poisoning
Joseph Park, Yong Won Kim, Se Hyun Oh, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung Chul Cha, Oh Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(2):77-84.   Published online December 31, 2014
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Purpose: Carbamate insecticides are potent cholinesterase inhibitors capable of causing severe cholinergic toxicity. Use of carbamate rather than organophosphate insecticides has been increasing. Compared with organophosphate poisoning, relatively few studies have investigated carbamate-associated acute pancreatitis. We investigated general characteristics and pancreatitis of carbamate poisoning and the predictors, among those readily assessed in the emergency department. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients, aged over 18 years, who were admitted between January 2008 and April 2012 to an emergency department (ED) of an academic tertiary care center for treatment of carbamate poisoning. Patients who exhibited poisoning by any other material, except alcohol, were excluded. After application of exclusion criteria, patients were divided according to carbamate-induced pancreatitis and non-pancreatitis groups. Results: A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Among these 41 patients, the prevalence of acute pancreatitis was 36.6% (15 patients). Initial blood chemistry tests showed a statistically higher glucose level in the pancreatitis group, compared with the non-pancreatitis group (222, IQR 189-284 vs. 137, IQR 122-175 mg/dL, P<0.05). Regarding clinical courses and outcomes, a significantly higher proportion of patients developed pneumonia [10 (66.7%) vs. 6 (23.1%), P<0.05] and had a longer hospital stay (7 days, IQR 6-12 vs. 5 days, IQR 2-11, P<0.05), but no difference in mortality, in the pancreatitis group vs. the non-pancreatitis group. In multivariate analysis, the initial glucose was showing significant association with the presentation of carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis (odds ratio 1.018, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.035, P<0.05). Conclusion: Carbamate-induced acute pancreatitis is common, but not fatal. Initial serum glucose level is associated with acute pancreatitis.
Delayed Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration in Chronic Lithium Intoxication
Tae Su Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):28-30.   Published online June 30, 2013
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A 66-year-old male with chronic alcoholism presented with tremor, gait disturbance, memory impairment, insomnia, decreased appetite, and confusion. The patient had been taking lithium daily for treatment of bipolar disorder. Brain CT showed no specific abnormality, and serum lithium and ammonia levels were 3.63 mEq/L (therapeutic range, 0.6~1.2 mEq/L) and $85{mu}g/dL$ (reference range: $19{sim}54{mu}g/dL$), respectively. Therefore, the initial differential diagnosis included chronic lithium intoxication, hepatic encephalopathy, Wernicke encephalopathy, or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Even with the provision of adequate hydration, the patient's neurologic status did not show improvement, so that lactulose enema, thiamine replacement, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were started on the third admission day. By the fifth admission day he had made a rapid neurologic recovery, and was discharged on the 20th admission day. Therefore, CVVHDF might be a treatment for patients with chronic lithium intoxication, because, even if serum lithium concentration is normal, lithium concentration in the brain may be different from that of the serum.
Resuscitation Outcomes and Clinical Characteristics of Out-of-Hospital Drug Induced Cardiac Arrest
Yun Kwon Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Kyong Won, Kwon Il Lee, Sung Bum Oh, Joong Bum Moon, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(2):93-98.   Published online December 31, 2005
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Purpose: This study was to investigate the resuscitation outcomes and the clinical characteristics of non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by analyzing data from a single institution's registry. Method: We conducted a retrospective study of 795 patients who came to the emergency department with non-traumatic drug-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the period $1991{~}2004$. Only patients over 18 years of age were included. Clinical characteristics. variables associated with cardiac arrest, and data during resuscitation were obtained from our cardiac arrest database. Patients were divided into two groups: drug-induced cardiac arrest (drug group, n=33), and non drug-induced cardiac arrest (non-drug group, n=762). Results: Spontaneous circulation was restored in 23 ($72{\%}$) patients in the drug group and in 314 ($45{\%}$) patients in the non-drug group ($x^2=0.020$). The patients who discharged alive number were 46 ($6{\%}$) in the non-drug group and 0 ($0{\%}$) in the drug group ($x^2=0.005$). The witnessed arrest, the epinephrine doses, and total defibrillation energy were not different between two groups. Conclusion: The return of spontaneous circulation rate was higher in the drug group than the non-drug group. However the drug group was lower survival discharge rate than in the non-drug group.
A Case of Cantharidin Poisoning after the Ingestion of Herbal Medicine
Ho Jin Ji, Hyun Kim, Sun Hyu Kim, Sung Bum Oh, Joong Bum Moon, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):56-59.   Published online June 30, 2005
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Blister beetles produce cantharidin, which is toxic to people and animals. Cantharidin has been believed to be an aphrodisiac and an abortifacient based on its tendency to cause marked irritation to the genitourinary system leading to priapism in men and pelvic congestion in women for many years. Cantharidin was used by oriental traditional medicine for more than 2000 years. Typical signs related to cantharidin ingestion are gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract irritation, endotoxemia, shock and myocardial dysfunction. Cantharidin is a severe irritant to epithelial linings (gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and skin) and develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We report a case of corrosive esophagogastritis and acute renal failure by ingestion of cantharidin.
Effects of Alcohol in Intoxicated Patients
Hyun Kim, Ho Kyong Won, Ho Jung Kim, Seo Young Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(2):96-100.   Published online December 31, 2004
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Purpose: This study was to investigate the effects of ethanol in ingested patients by analyzing data from a single institution's registry, Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 50 patients who has ingested drugs with/without ethanol came to emergency department from January 2004 to May 2004. Only patients over 18 years of age were included. Clinical characteristics, general and specific treatment, laboratory finding, complication, and clinical outcomes were obtained from protocol. Patients were divided into two groups: drug ingested with alcohol (ethanol group, n=18), and ingested without alcohol (non-ethanol group, n=32). Results: The age, the amout of ingestion, the time to treatment, the systolic blood pressure, the diastolic blood pressure and the shock duration were not different between two groups. The AST level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($230.94pm518.88$ U/L vs $43.22pm63.39$ U/L, p=0.002). The ALT level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($97.06pm152.98$ U/L vs $32.75pm43.10$ U/L, p=0.001). The lactic acid level with the ethanol group was higher than with the non-ethanol group ($7.40pm6.33$ mmol/L vs $3.77pm3.10$ mmol/L, p=0.001). The hospital stay duration and the admission rate were not different between two groups. Conlusions: The ethanol increased the levels of serum AST, ALT and lactic acid in intoxicated patients. But the ethanol dose not increase admission rate and duration of admission stay in intoxicated patients.
Myopericarditis by an Ingestion of Hydrofluoric acid - A case report
Sun Hyu Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Ji, Yong Soo Jang, Sung Bum Oh, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):63-66.   Published online June 30, 2004
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Hydrofluoric acid (HF), one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purpose. Hydrofluoric acid injuries has a potential for both systemic as well as severe local tissue destruction. One of the most serious consequences of severe exposure to HF by any route is marked lowering of serum calcium (hypocalcemia) and other metabolic changes, such as hypomagnesemia and which may result in a fatal outcome if not recognized and treated. promptly cardiotoxicity is not well known except arrhythmias, which are a primary cause of death. We report a case of myopericarditis by ingestion of hydrofluoric acid.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology