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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Yun-Sik Hong 6 Articles
Different Characteristics of Toxic Substance/poison Exposure Data that Collected from Pre-hospital Telephone Response and Emergency Department
Su-Jin Kim, Min-Hong Choa, Jong-Su Park, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2014;12(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find differences in the demographics of toxic exposed patients and substance between call based poison information data and hospital based poison information data. Methods: Seoul 1339 call-response data were used as call based poison data and toxic related injury surveillance data of the Korean center for disease control and prevention (KCDC) were used as hospital based poison data. Age, sex, the kind of exposed substance, reasons for exposure, and exposure routes were compared between two data sets. We analyzed the presence or not of documentation on the name and amount of exposed substance, symptoms after exposure in call based poison data. Results: Seoul1339 poison data included a total of 2260 information related to toxic exposure and KCDC poison data included 5650 poison cases. There was no difference in sexual distribution. Pediatric exposure and accidental exposure were more common in call based poison data. The most common exposed substances were household products in call based poison data and medicines in hospital based poison data, respectively. Documents regarding amount and time of toxic exposure and symptoms after toxic exposure were not recorded exactly in call based poison data. Conclusion: There were significant differences in age, reasons for toxic exposure, and the kinds of exposed substances. Poison information data from both pre-hospital and hospital must be considered.
Cardiac Toxicity Following a Diphenhydramine Overdose
Sung-Jun Park, Jong-Hak Park, In-Kyung Um, Kyung-Ae Park, Do-Hyoun Kim, Su-Jin Kim, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):20-25.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the contributing factors, as well as the incidence and nature of the cardiac toxicity, in patients presenting with diphenhydramine overdose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the intoxicated patients who presented to the ED of Korea University Anam Hospital from January 2008 to December 2010. Those patients who visited due to a diphenhydramine overdose were selected and the following features were recorded for analysis: the general characteristics, vital signs, the amount of ingested diphenhydramine, the time interval from ingestion to presentation, the coingested drugs (if any), the toxicities and the ECG findings. Cardiac toxicity, while defined mainly in terms of the temporary ECG changes such as QTc prolongation, right axis deviation, QRS widening, high degree AV block and ischemic changes, also encompassed cardiogenic shock, which is a clinical finding. Results: A total of eighteen patients were enrolled. Of the eighteen patients, eight had ingested diphenhydramine only, while ten had ingested other drugs in addition to diphenhydramine. The most commonly observed toxicity following diphenhydramine overdose included cardiac toxicity (78%). Cardiac toxicity was observed in all the patients who presented to the emergency department 2 hours after ingestion. The patients with QTc prolongation turned out to have ingested significantly larger amounts of diphenhydramine. Conclusion: QTc prolongation and right axis deviation were common findings for the patients with a diphenhydramine overdose. QTc prolongation was more likely to occur with ingesting larger amounts of diphenhydramine. Close monitoring is mandatory for patients who have ingested large amounts of diphenhydramine to prevent such potentially lethal cardiac toxicity.
Availability of Toxicologic Screening Tests in the Emergency Department
In-Kyung Um, Jong-Su Park, Kap-Su Han, Han-Jin Cho, Sung-Hyuck Choi, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):26-29.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Purpose: The role of a point of care test (POCT) is currently becoming important when treating patients and making decisions in the emergency department. It also plays a role for managing patients presenting with drug intoxication. But the availability of the test has not yet been studied in Korea. Therefore, we investigated the utility and the availability of POCT for drug screening used in the emergency department. Methods: This was a retrospective study for those patients with drug intoxication between January 2007 and December 2010 in an urban emergency department. Results: Between the study period, 543 patients were examined with a Triage$^{(R)}$-TOX Drug Screen. Among those, 248 (45.7%) patients showed negative results and 295 (54.3%) patients showed positive results. The sensitivity of the test for benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressants were 85.9%, 100%, 79.2%, respectively. Conclusion: POCT of drug screening in emergency department showed good accuracy especially in patient with benzodiazepine, acetaminophen and tricyclic antidepressant intoxication. Therefore, it can be useful diagnostic tool for the management of intoxicated patients.
Corrosive Injury Due to Edible Vinegar
Do-Hyoun Kim, Sung-Woo Lee, In NamGung, Jong-Hak Park, Su-Jin Kim, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2011;9(1):34-38.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Vinegar is a very popular ingredient used in many cuisines. It is also known for its beneficial health, beauty and possible weight-loss properties. The authors report on a patient who presented to the emergency department with unstable vital signs complaining of generalized abdominal pain after ingestion of 450 ml of apple cider vinegar. We documented a case of corrosive gastrointestinal injury with persistent metabolic acidosis occurring after ingesting apple cider vinegar with an acetic acid concentration of 12~14%. Toxic damage to the liver and kidney were also observed, peaking on post-ingestion day 3. The patient received supportive care and hemoperfusion for three days without much clinical improvement and died in the seventh day of intensive care due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi organ failure. Edible vinegar, when taken in large amounts, is capable of inducing corrosive injuries of the GI tract as well as severe systemic toxicities, such as metabolic acidosis. Safety precautions regarding vinegar deserve more public attention and clinicians also should be astute enough to recognize the potential damage accompanying vinegar ingestion.
Analysis of Patients with Acute Industrial Toxic Exposure at an Emergency Department in an Industrial Complex
Jun-Hyun Shin, Sung-Woo Moon, Seung-Won Baek, Sung-Ik Lim, Young-Hun Yoon, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):117-122.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: Surveys on poisoning usually involves intoxication rather than inhalation, skin contact, etc. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of patients who visited the emergency department in an industrial complex after acute industrial exposure to toxic materials. Methods: Medical records of patients exposed to toxic materials in the work places from April, 2006, to March, 2008, were analyzed retrospectively. Inhalation patients due to fire were excluded. Results: Subjects included 66 patients, with a mean age of $35.4{pm}10.9$ years, mostly men (91%). Toxicity occurred in 51 patients (77%) by contact, 15 patients (23%) by inhalation, and none by oral ingestion. For toxic materials, 10 patients were exposed to hydrofluoric acid, 8 to hydrochloric acid, 7 to sodium hydroxide, 7 to metals, and others. The face and hands were the most frequent exposure site by contact. Most exposures were caused by accidents, with 29 cases (42%) exposed because of carelessness or not wearing protective equipment. Most complaints were pain on exposure site, but 7 of the inhalation patients complained of dyspnea. The majority of patients with contact exposure were discharged after wound care or observation. After inhalation exposure, 1 patient died and 5 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Conclusion: Major causes of workplace exposure were not wearing protective equipment or carelessness. Although contact exposures are usually benign, cautious observation and management are required in patients with inhalation exposure.
Epidemiology and Clinical Analysis of Poisoning of Glufosinate Herbicide - Multicenter Study -
Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong, Woon-Yong Kwon, Joon-Seok Park, Eun-Kyung Eo, Bum-Jin Oh, Mi-Jin Lee, Joo-Hyun Suh, Hyung-Keun Roh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(1):36-42.   Published online June 30, 2007
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Purpose: To assess the epidemiology and the clinical features of Glufosinate herbicide in Korea. Methods: Data was prospectively collected during 1 year since August 2005 from 38 hospital in Korea. We analyzed the epidemiologic characters and clinical manifestations of Glufosinate poisoning. In addition, the characteristics of patients with severe central nervous system toxicity were separately analyzed to find poor prognosis relating factors. Results: During study periods, there were 715 persons of poisoning of herbicides and insecticides. 6.3% (45 persons) of the agricultural chemicals poisoning had Glufosinate poisoning. There were 36 cases of suicide attempts and 7 cases of accidental exposure, The major of poisoning route was oral ingestion (44 cases). 28.9 % of the study patients had not toxic symptoms. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal symptoms relating surfactant irritation. 67.7% of central nervous symptoms occurred lately. 10 persons showed severe central nervous system toxicity. 4 persons of them showed poor outcomes (1 death, 3 hopeless discharged). Complications of respiratory failure and renal failure related with poor outcome. Conclusion: Majority of patients ingested Glufosinate for suicide attempt. 22.2% of patients with Glufosinate poisoning showed delayed serious central nervous system toxicity. Early supportive care of altered mentality may prevent late respiratory complications and improve the outcomes.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology