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Volume 7(2); 2009
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Initial Electrocardiographic Changes associated with Clinical Severity in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning
Hwan-Jung Lee, Jae-Chol Yoon, Tae-O Jeong, Young-Ho Jin, Jae-Baek Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):69-76.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Various electrocardiogram (ECG) changes can occur in patients with acute organophosphate poisoning (OPP) and may be associated with the clinical severity of poisoning. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent and frequency of ECG changes and cardiac manifestations, and their association with acute OPP clinical severity. Methods: Seventy-two adult patients admitted to our emergency department with a diagnosis of acute OPP were studied retrospectively. ECG changes and cardiac manifestations at admission were evaluated. ECG changes between respiratory failure (RF) group and no respiratory failure (no RF) groups were compared. Results: Prolongation of QTc interval (n=40, 55.6%) was the most common ECG change, followed by sinus tachycardia (n=36, 50.0%). ST-T wave changes such as ST segment elevation or depression and T wave change (inversion or non-specific change) were evident in 16 patients (22.2%). Prolongation of QTc interval was significantly higher in the RF group compared with the no RF group (p=0.03), but was not an independent predictor for RF in acute OPP (OR; 4.00, 95% CI; 0.70-23.12, p=0.12). Conclusion: While patients with acute OPP can display ECG changes that include prolongation of QTc interval, sinus tachycardia, and ST-T wave changes at admission, these changes are not predictors of respiratory failure.
Effect of Seizure on Prognosis in Acute Endosulfan Intoxication
Byung-Gon Han, Jun-Ho Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):77-82.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: In highly doses, endosulfan lowers the seizure threshold and elicits central nervous system stimulation, which can result in seizures, respiratory failure, and death. Management of seizure control is essential for survival and prognosis of intoxicated patients. This study assessed whether seizure time was an independent predictor mortality in patients with endosulfan poisoning. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients with endosulfan poisoning presenting to Masan Samsung Hospital and Gyeongsang National University Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. The data were collected from clinical records and laboratory files. Using a multivariate logistic analysis, data on the total population was retrospectively analyzed for association with mortality. Results: Of the 24 patients with endosulfan poisoning, nineteen (79.1%) experienced seizure. The patients in the seizure group showed significantly lower Glasgow coma scale score, base excess, bicarbonate, and significant existence of mechanical ventilation, as compared to the non seizure group (n=5). Seizure, Glasgow coma scale score, systolic blood pressure, bicarbonate level, need for respiratory support, pulse rate, respiratory rate, pH, base excess, and seizure time were associated with mortality. The fatality rate of endosulfan poisoning was 54.1% with higher mortality among patients experiencing. Longer seizure time was associated with higher mortality. Conclusion: Seizure time can be a significant independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute endosulfan poisoning. Physicians should aggressively treat for seizure control in patients with acute endosulfan poisoning.
Related Factors and their Effects on Acute Renal Failure Resulting from Rhabdomyolysis after Pesticide Intoxication
Chang-Woo Kang, Kyung-Woo Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Tae-Shin Kang, Dong-Hoon Kim, Sung-Choon Kim, In-Sung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):83-89.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the most important complications of pesticide intoxication. It affects a patient's clinical prognosis and can cause acute renal failure. It is important that patients diagnosed with pesticide intoxication receive an accurate initial diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent significant complications. This study's objective was to investigate and confirm related factors causing acute renal failure by verifying clinical observations and laboratory findings collected following pesticide intoxication. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made of 734 patients who presenting to our emergency medical center after ingesting pesticides between January 2006 and December 2008, Of these, 513 patients were selected for the study. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were excluded because of paraquat intoxication, age (if under 18), or chronic renal failure. Seventy-four patients were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, based on serum creatinine phosphokinase levels were > 1,000U/L. Acute renal failure was diagnosed when creatinine levels were > 2.0 mg/dL. Results: Among the 74 patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, 26 (35.1%) experienced acute renal failure. The most meaningful related factor in the prediction of acute renal failure was initial arterial pH and creatinine level. Conclusion: Initial arterial pH and creatinine level are predictors of complications such as acute renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis.
Systemic Complications occurring after Korean Venomous Snake Bite, with focus on Hematologic and Neurologic Complications
Eun-Jung Park, Sang-Kyu Yoon, Jung-Hwan Ahn, Sang-Cheon Choi, Gi-Woon Kim, Young-Gi Min, Kuk-Jong Lee, Ho-Sung Jung, Yoon-Seok Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):90-96.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: This study explored and evaluated the systemic complications resulting from the bite of Korean venomous snake, focussing on hematologic and neurologic features. Methods: Medical records (demographic data, clinical measurements including laboratory results, severity score, and amount of antidote administration, and hospitalization course) of consecutive patients who presented with snakebites to two university teaching hospital during a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Subgroup analysis was conducted for evaluations of anti-acetylcholine esterase administration in complicated victims. Results: The 170 patients displayed occurrence rates of hematologic and neurologic complications of 12.9% and 20.6%, respectively. Among 22 patients with hematologic complications, isolated thrombocytopenia was evident in eight patients (36.4%), prothrombin time (PT) / activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) prolongation in 11 patients (50.0%), and both in three patients (13.6%). The mean time to recovery was $4.5{pm}1.8$ days for isolated thrombocytopenia, and $5.1{pm}1.8$ days for PT and aPTT prolongation. Hematologic complications could occur suddenly 1?4 days after hospitalization. Among 35 patients with neurologic complications, dizziness was evident in 16 patients (45.7%), and diplopia / blurred vision in 19 patients (54.3%). The mean time to recovery was $3.4{pm}0.6$ days in patients receiving anti-acetylcholine esterase and $6.9{pm}1.8$ days in those not receiving anti-acetylcholine esterase (p=0.00). Conclusion: Occurrence rates of hematologic and neurologic complications following venomous snake bite differed as compared to other studies conducted in Korea. Onset of hematologic complications can occur rapidly days after admittance. Anti-acetylcholine esterase administration may be effective in treating neurologic complications.
Clinical Significance of Delayed re-evaluation in Initial Symptoms Following Snakebite Injury
Dae-Hee Kim, Se-Min Choe, Young-Min Oh, Joo-Suk Oh, Yeon-Young Kyong, Kyoung-Ho Choi
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):97-104.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Antivenin is a standard therapy in snakebite victims. While the required antivenin dose can be easily estimated, based on the initial symptoms, this strategy may be unsuccessful if the initial symptoms progressively worsen. The purpose of this study was to identify the progression rate of the initial symptoms following snakebite and its associated factors. Methods: The medical records of 44 patients treated for snakebite from give the actual dates of the study period were retrospectively examined. Thirty-two of these patients were enrolled. Demographic data, local wound grade and local effect score at initial presentation (G-0 and LES-0, respectively) and 12 hours after admission (G-12 and LES-12, respectively) were reviewed, along with laboratory data. Results: The 32 patients had an average age of $54.0{pm}14.5$ years and were predominantly male (n=26) and presented mainly during summer. Compared to G-0 and LES-0, re-evaluated G-12 and LES-12 were significantly increased despite initial administration of proper antivenin dosage (p=0.001 and p=0.000, respectively). Total amounts of antivenin correlated with LES-12 (correlation co-efficiency 0.558, p<0.05). However, factors associated with symptom progression were not revealed. Conclusion: Initial snakebite symptoms might progressively worsen within hours despite acceptable initial antivenin therapy. Therefore, re-evaluation within several hours must be considered if when the initial snakebite symptoms are minimal or mild.
Relation of First Aid associated with Complications after Snake Bites
Jae-Cheon Jeon, Dong-Ha Lee, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sung-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):105-112.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: There have been local wound complications in patients who have received first aid after venomous snake bites. Yet first aid in relation to local wound complications has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a 5-year retrospective study of 111 snake bite patients who visited the emergency departments of several medical centers between January 2004 and December 2008. We categorized the patients into those who had complications with inadequate first aid, those who had complications without first aid those who had complications with adequate first aid. We compared the genera characteristics and the laboratory and clinical findings of the three groups. Results: The ale o female ratio was 1.36. The most common bite site was fingers. The most common systemic symptom was dizziness (6.3%) and the most common complication was rhabdomyolysis (23.4%). The inadequate first aids group had more local complications (cellulitis, skin necrosis) than did the group with adequate first aid or the group with no first aids. Conclusion: Inadequate first aid after snake bite leads to local complications, so we must be careful to administer first aid after snake bite and evaluate this first aid in elation to local complications.
The Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Upper Digestive Lesions that are due to Ingestion of Caustic Material
Young-Sin Kim, Se-Min Choi, Hyung-Min Kim, Chun-Song Youn, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):113-120.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Though caustic injury of the upper digestive tract can lead to severe sequelae, there are few clinical studies on this subject. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the endoscopic findings and the risk factors of the upper digestive lesions in patient with caustic ingestion injury. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who ingested caustic materials and who visited to our emergency room from January, 2000 to June, 2009. Results: The most common ingested agent was sodium hypochlorite (44.5%), followed by acetic acid (19.7%), hydrochloric acid (11.7%) and lye (8.0%). Ingestion for suicidal attempt (62.0%) was more frequent than accidental ingestion (30.7%). Grade IIa injury was the most frequent finding on endoscopy of the esophagus and Grade 1 injury was the most frequent finding on endoscopy of the stomach. For the late sequelae, there were 9 cases (6.6%) of esophageal stricture and 2 cases (1.5%) of gastric outlet obstruction. The initial signs and symptoms did not correlate with the development of stricture, but leukocytosis, and grade III injury were related to the risk of developing stricture. Conclusion: Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is frequently observed on early endoscopy and it can cause significant late sequelae such as stricture. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these patients with regular follow up endoscopic examinations for the management of late sequelae.
Acute Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure: Our Clinical Experience at Emergency Centers in Two University Teaching Hospitals
Kyu-Hong Han, Jung-Il Yang, Seung-Yook Jo, Yong-Chul Cho, Seung Ryu, Jin-Woong Lee, Seung-Whan Kim, In-Sool Yoo, Yeon-Ho You, Jung-Soo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):121-126.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: We investigated the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients who suffered from hydrofluoric acid chemical injury and the mechanism of damage. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were exposed to hydrofluoric acid from March 2004 to March 2009 and who were seen at the emergency centers in two university teaching hospitals. Results: Forty four patients out of 47 patients suffered from chemical burn, while the injuries of the remaining 3 could not be identified by the medical records. A total of 17 hydrofluoric acid chemical injury patients were enrolled during the study period, and their mean age was $29.6{pm}7.0$. All the patients were accidentally injured by contact with the material and none of them inhaled or ingested the material. Only 6 patients wore appropriate protective equipments and 5 underwent the water irrigation for more than 10 minutes. The most common exposure area was the hand and forearm (70.5%). Less than 1% of all of the patients had their total body surface (TBS) exposed to hydrofluoric acid (mean=0.35%). The mean time interval from calcium gluconate administration to pain relief was $33.6{pm}8.8$ hours. Conclusion: When exposed to hydrofluoric acid, it is important to wear protective equipment and undergo water irrigation for more than 10 minutes. Pain and skin damage were observed in all the patients. After treatment, we concluded that administration of calcium gluconate and pain killers was successful in relieving pain, and the prognosis was also positive for the admitted and followed up patients when less than 1% of the TBS was exposed.
Evaluation of the Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Drug Intoxication
Dong-Hee Kim, Joo-Suk Oh, Yeon-Young Kyoung, Se-Min Choi, Young-Min Oh, Kyoung-Ho Choi, Kyu-Nam Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):127-136.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: It is known that aspiration pneumonitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity following overdose. However, until now, few domestic studies on this subject have been conducted. The main aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonitis in intubated patients following overdose. Methods: Among 654 adult overdosed patients who visited our institution from Jan. 2006 to June 2008, we enrolled 70 intubated patients within 24 hours after their overdose, and we reviewed the medical records to collect the data. This data was processed by univariate analysis, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. P values <0.05 were deemed statistically significant. Results: In our study, a high incidence of pneumonitis was seen in the patients with an older age, a lower GCS and a high poisoning severity score or a high comorbidity score (p<0.05). Compared with the non-pneumonitis group, the pneumonitis group had a higher incidence of intubation (6% vs 61.8%, respectively, p<0.05). The main cause of intubation was a decreased mentality (68.6%). Older age, a high comorbidity score, irrigation without airway protection, relative hypoxemia and hyperkalemia were the risk factors of aspiration pneumonitis in the intubated overdosed patients (p<0.05). Among these factors, age, a high potassium level and airway protection might be significant predictors of aspiration penumonitis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Older age, a high potassium level and irrigation without proper airway protection may be the significant factors that can predict aspiration pneumonitis in patients who are intubated within 24 hours after overdose, although the further investigations on this are needed.
Drug-Induced Anaphylactic Shock at the Emergency Department
Sang-Guen Han, Ryeok Ahn, Sun-Hyu Kim, Seung-Won Choe, Seung-Won Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):137-142.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of drug induced anaphylactis and anaphylactic shock in patients who were admitted to the emergency department Methods: We retrospectively collected the data on patients with drug induced anaphylaxis and who were admitted to the emergency department from January 2001 to June 2009. The study group was divided into the non-shock and shock groups according to whether the systolic blood pressure more than 90mmHg. The initial demographic data, the causes of drug-induced anaphylaxis, the clinical manifestations, the treatment and the prognosis were reviewed for 72 patients. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was $47.9P{pm}14.2$ years old and there were 40 male patients and 32 female patients. There were 26 patients in the non-shock group and 46 in the shock group. The mean age was older in the shock group than in the non-shock group ($51.5{pm}15.1$ vs $42.5{pm}10.6$, p-0.002). A history of drug allergy was more common in the shock group, but no difference was found for the comorbid chronic diseases between the two groups. Radio-contrast media was the most common cause, followed non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and antibiotics, but there is no difference in the causes between the two groups. The symptoms of cyanosis, syncope, sweating and dizziness were more frequently manifested in the shock group. The administration of intravenous fluid and injection of subcutaneous epinephrine at the emergency department were more frequent in the shock group than in the non-shock group. Conclusion: For the patients who were admitted to the emergency department with drug induced anaphylaxis, the mean age was older and the symptoms of cyanosis, syncope, sweating, dizziness were more frequent in the anaphylactic shock patients than in the non-shock group. More treatments were given at the emergency department to the anaphylactic shock patients.
Influence of the Werther Effect: An Increase of Intentional Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
In-Young Heo, Sang-Cheon Choi, Chung-Ah Lee, Jung-Hwan Ahn, Young-Gi Min, Yoon-Seok Jung, Joon-Pil Cho, Jin-Sook Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):143-149.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Suicide attempts are known to be influenced by mass media reports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mass media reporting celebrity suicides on an increase of intentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and suicide attempts. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the consecutive patients who presented with suicide attempts to the Emergency Department of Ajou University Hospital during a 24 month period. We obtained the demographic data, any past history of suicide attempt and the methods of suicide attempts from the medical records of the suicide attempters. Time series analysis was conducted for evaluating the influence of mass media reporting of celebrity suicide on the suicide rates. Results: We finally enrolled 770 patients during the study period. The total number of suicide attempts by CO poisoning was 18 and the average number of suicide attempts by CO was $0.33{pm}0.73$ per week. All of the suicide attempts by CO poisoning occurred after a celebrity committed suicide using CO from burning charcoal. Conclusion: This study showed that celebrity suicide by CO poisoning resulted in the Werther effect, which made the rate of intended CO poisoning increase, and the study provided further evidence for the need to actively restrain mass media reporting of suicide to decrease the Werther effect.
Clinical Experience with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy as a Method of Extracorporeal Elimination and as performed by Emergency Room Physicians for Patients with Poisoning
Jung-Hwan Ahn, Sang-Cheon Choi, Yoon-Seok Jung, Young-Gi Min
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):150-155.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Extracorporeal elimination of drugs is a critical part of managing poisonings, although the indications and optimal method remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to report our clinical experiences with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), as performed by emergency room physicians, as method of extracorporeal drug elimination in patients with poisoning. Methods: This study was a retrospective study of the consecutive patients who underwent CRRT, as performed by an emergency room physician, for acute poisoning. The patient characteristics, the kinds of drugs and the method of extracorporeal elimination were analyzed by reviewing the patients' charts. Results: During eleven months, 26 patients with acute poisoning underwent extracorporeal elimination (2 patients; intermittent hemodialysis, 24 patients; CRRT). The mean time from the decision to performing extracorporeal elimination was $206.0{pm}36.8$ minutes for intermittent hemodialysis, $62.9{pm}8.5$ minutes for continuous venoveno-hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and $56.6{pm}6.8$ minutes for charcoal hemoperfusion. For the patients with CRRT, CVVHDF was conducted in 10 patients (3 patients; valproic acid, 2 patients; Lithium, 1 patient; salicylates, 1 patient; methanol) and charcoal hemoperfusion by using CRRT was done in 14 patients (13 patients; paraquat, 1 patient; dapsone). For the 12 patients who required hemodialysis due to severe poisoning, 7 patients underwent CRRT because of their unstable vital signs. Conclusion: CRRT was an effective method of extracorporeal drug elimination in patients with acute poisoning, and especially for the cases with unstable vital sign and for those patients who required an early start of extracorporeal elimination according to the characteristics of the drug. (ED note: the writing of the abstract was not clear. Check it carefully.)
The Predictive Factors of the Serum Creatine Kinase Level Normalization Time in Patients with Rhabdomyolysis due to Doxylamine Ingestion
Min-Chul Shin, Oh-Young Kwon, Jong-Suk Lee, Han-Sung Choi, Hoon-Pyo Hong, Young-Gwan Ko
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):156-163.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: Doxylamine succinate (DS) is frequently used to treat insomnia and it may induce rhabdomyolysis in the overdose cases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors that can predict the serum creatine kinase (CK) level normalization time for patients with rhabdomyolysis due to DS ingestion. Methods: This study was conducted on 71 patients who were admitted with rhabdomyolysis after DS ingestion during the period from January 2000 to July 2009. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as a serum CK level over 1,000 U/L. The collected data included the general characteristics, the anticholinergic symptoms, the ingested dose, the peak serum CK level, the time interval (TI) from the event to the peak CK level and the TI from the event to a CK level below 1,000 U/L. We evaluated the correlation between the patients' variables and the TI from the event to the peak CK level time and the time for a CK level below 1,000 U/L. Results: The mean ingested dose per body weight (BW) was $30.86{pm}18.63;mg/kg$ and the mean TI from the event to treatment was $4.04{pm}3.67$ hours. The TI from the event to the peak CK level was longer for the patients with a larger ingestion dose per BW (r=0.587, p<0.05). The CK normalization time was longer for the patients with a larger ingested dose per BW (r=0.446, p<0.05) and a higher peak CK level (r=0.634, p<0.05). Conclusion: The ingested dose per BW was correlated with the TI from the event to the peak CK level, and the ingested dose per BW and the peak CK level have significant correlations with the CK normalization time. These factors may be used to determine the discharge period of patients who had rhabdomyolysis following a OS overdose.
The Clinical Characteristics and Mortality Factors of Patients with Hemorrhagic Complications after Anticoagulation Therapy with Warfarin
Se-Ho Lee, Nam-Kyu Kim, Chang-Hwan Sohn, Jung-Hun Kim, Won Kim, Kyung-Soo Lim, Bum-Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):164-171.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: The number of patients who take warfarin is growing and so is the number of complications. Hemorrhage is the major complication, but the clinical characteristics and outcomes have not been determined for Korean patients. Therefore, we tried to evaluate the characteristics of the patients with hemorrhagic complications after taking warfarin as anticoagulation therapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients who visited the emergency room with bleeding complications after taking warfarin anticoagulation at the out-patient clinic for 1 year from 1 st January 2008. We compared between two groups (the major hemorrhage group vs. the minor hemorrhage group) according to the clinical criteria, the unstable vital signs that required blood transfusion, transfusion more than 2 units of blood, the need for further laboratory follow-up, the need for interventional treatment and the development of critical complications or death due to bleeding. Results: There were 150 patients who met the criteria and had acute hemorrhagic complications (the major group: 90 patients and the minor group: 60 patients). In the major hemorrhage group, the frequent sites of bleeding were the gastro-intestinal system (40 patients), lung (14 patients) and intracranium (7 patients). At the emergency room, the major group showed a higher initial INR of the activated prothrombin time than did the minor group (p=0.02). The bleeding sites of the fatal cases were the gastro-intestinal system (3 patients), lung (3 patients) and intracranium (3 patients), but the percentage of fatality was the highest for intracranium bleeding. Conclusion: In the major hemorrhage group, gastrointestinal bleeding was the most frequent complication and fatality was the highest for intracranium bleeding. An initially higher INR showed a greater risk of major bleeding, but not more fatalities.
A Lethal Case of Aute Zipeprol Poisoning Occurring in a Drug Addicted Old Woman
Doo-Hwan Lee, Sang-Cheon Choi, Jung-Hwan Ahn, Young-Shin Cho, Gi-Woon Kim, Young-Gi Min, Yoon-Seok Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):172-175.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Zipeprol dihydrochloride is a non-opioid mucolytic, antitussive agent and it is frequently prescribed for respiratory symptoms such as cough and sputum. The main pharmacologic mechanisms of zipeprol are inhibition of superior laryngeal nerve stimulation and direct antagonism for stimulation of the bronchial receptors, which might have an effect for the drug's mucolytic action. Many cases of drug abuse with zipeprol have occurred world-wide due to the hallucinogenic effect of the drug. In Korea, zipeprol was reported to be the most commonly abused drug among young people for the 1990s. Zipeprol associated death was first reported since 1991 and 69 cases of death related to zipeprol abuse were further reported during 8 years (between 1991 and 1998). In addition to the hallucinogenic effect, dyspnea, extrapyramidal symptoms, seizure, cerebral edema have been reported as the signs and symptoms of toxic zipeprol overdose. However, zipeprol abuse is not common for old age people and non drug abusers. We report here on a fatal case of acute zipeprol poisoning in an eighty five year old drug addicted woman.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology