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The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
Prediction of pathogen positive-culture results in acute poisoning patients with suspected aspiration
Sungha Baek, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):75-81.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.75
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Purpose: This study sought to compare the characteristics of patients with pathogen-positive and negative cultures, and to investigate factors predicting pathogen-positive culture results in patients of acute poisoning with suspected aspiration. Methods: Consecutive patients with acute poisoning admitted to an intensive care unit between January 2016 and December 2018 were retrospectively studied. Respiratory specimens were collected from the enrolled patients at the time of the suspected aspiration. We compared the characteristics of patients with pathogen-positive and negative culture results and analyzed the causative pathogens. Results: Among the 526 patients, 325 showed no clinical features that could be attributed to aspiration, and 201 patients had clinical features suggestive of aspiration. Of these, 113 patients had pathogen-positive culture, 61 were negative, and the specimens of 27 patients contained poor-quality sputum. In univariate analysis, patients with a positive culture showed a longer time to culture from ingestion (p=0.01), faster heart rate (p=0.01), and higher partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) (p=0.02) than patients with negative culture. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PaO2/FiO2 (adjusted odd ratio, 1.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002-1.008; p=0.005) was a significant risk factor for pathogen-positive culture. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of PaO2/FiO2 was 0.591 (95% CI, 0.510-0.669, p=0.05). Gram-negative pathogens (GNPs) were predominant and at least one GNP was observed in 84 (73.3%) patients among those with pathogen positive culture. Conclusion: We failed to find any clinical factors associated with positive culture results. Antibiotics that cover GNPs could be considered when deciding the initial antibiotic regimen at the time of suspected aspiration.
Cerebellar Hippocampal and Basal Nuclei Transient Edema with Restricted diffusion (CHANTER) syndrome due to antidepressant
Sangun Nah, Han Bit Kim, Sangsoo Han, Sungwoo Choi, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):31-34.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.31
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cerebellar Hippocampal and Basal Nuclei Transient Edema with Restricted diffusion (CHANTER) syndrome is characterized by an altered mental status. The acute MRI lesions show abnormal restricted diffusion imaging bilaterally and symmetrically in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and basal nuclei. This syndrome is an unknown syndrome and is presumed to be mainly an opioidinduced toxidrome. Here, we present a case study wherein we show that it can also be caused by an antidepressant overdose.
Comparison of medical history based diagnosis and urine test using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in drug overdose
Ja-Young Lee, Kyungman Cha, Won Jung Jeong, Hyung Min Kim, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In patients with acute drug overdose, identification of drugs ingested is crucial to make a precise diagnosis. In most cases, the diagnoses are made on the medical history and physical examination findings. This study was undertaken to determine the concordance of diagnosis made on the basis of patient history by comparing it with urine toxicology analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of drug intoxicated patients over 18 years old who presented to the emergency center from 2017 to 2019. Specimens from urine were tested using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). The test results were compared with information obtained from patients. Diagnostic concordances for drug detection in intoxicated patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy. Results: Totally, 370 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 66 types of drugs were detected by UPLC-TMS. The drugs detected most frequently were zolpidem (104, 27.8%), citalopram (70, 18.7%), and paracetamol (66, 17.6%). The mean diagnostic concordance of patients was 52.7%. There were statistically significant diagnostic discrepancies in patients with underlying depression and patients intoxicated with multiple types of drugs. Conclusion: In ED patients with acute drug overdose, the diagnoses made on history alone were often inaccurate. It is essential to perform urine toxicology tests such as UPLC-TMS as a confirmatory instrument to improve accuracy in evaluating patients with drug intoxication.
Causative Substance and Time of Mortality Presented to Emergency Department Following Acute Poisoning: 2014-2018 National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS)
Hyeonjae Lee, Minhong Choa, Eunah Han, Dong Ryul Ko, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Junho Cho, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):65-71.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.65
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of acute fatal poisoning and the time of death by analyzing the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of South Korea. Methods: The NEDIS data from 2014 to 2018 excluding non-medical visits were used for this study. The patients with acute poisoning were extracted using diagnostic codes. The toxic substances were classified into pharmaceuticals, pesticides, gases, artificial poisonous substances, and natural toxic substances. Patients were classified according to the time of death, place of death, and region. In each case, the most causative substances of poisoning were identified. Results: There were 380,531 patients including poisoning-related diagnoses, of which 4,148 (1.1%) died, and the WHO age-standardized mortality rate was 4.8 per 100,000. Analysis of 2,702 death patients whose primary diagnosis was acute poisoning, the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides (62%), followed by therapeutic drugs, gas, and artificial toxic substances. Herbicides were the most common pesticides at 64.5%. The proportion of mortality by time, hyperacute (<6 h) 27.9%, acute (6-24 h) 32.6%, subacute (1-7 d) 29.7%, and delayed period (>7 d) were 9.8%. Conclusion: This study suggests that the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides, and 60% of deaths occurred within 24 hours. The 71% of mortality from pesticides occurred within 6-24 hours, but mortality from gas was mostly within 6 hours. According to the geographic region, the primary cause of poisoning death was varied to pesticides or pharmaceuticals.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Novel Method for Medical Predictive Models in Small Data Using Out-of-Distribution Data and Transfer Learning
    Inyong Jeong, Yeongmin Kim, Nam-Jun Cho, Hyo-Wook Gil, Hwamin Lee
    Mathematics.2024; 12(2): 237.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Machine Learning-Based Prediction Models of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning
    Yeongmin Kim, Minsu Chae, Namjun Cho, Hyowook Gil, Hwamin Lee
    Mathematics.2022; 10(24): 4633.     CrossRef
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2017-18 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Jiyoon Koh, Woochan Jeon, Hyunggoo Kang, Yang Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun, Sung Phil Chung, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):85-93.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.85
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Results: A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. Conclusion: This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 응급실 기반 중독 심층 실태조사 1차년도 결과 보고
    성우 이, 수진 김, 규종 조, 미진 이, 병학 소, 경수 김, 주현 송
    Public Health Weekly Report.2024; 17(14): 535.     CrossRef
  • Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
    Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Prioritising Risk Factors for Prescription Drug Overdose among Older Adults in South Korea: A Multi-Method Study
    Eun-Hae Lee, Ju-Ok Park, Joon-Pil Cho, Choung-Ah Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5948.     CrossRef
Zolpidem Detection and Blood Level in Acute Poisoning-suspected Patients in Emergency Departments: Review of 229 Cases
Jaehyung Yu, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Jeonghun Yeom, Arum Lee, Na-Youn Park, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(2):118-125.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.2.118
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs (including zolpidem) are associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation. Considering the wide usage of zolpidem, this drug should be considered a possible etiology for stupor or coma in any patient exposed to this drug. However, there are no reports on zolpidem blood levels in emergency department patients in Korea. We therefore reviewed the analyzed data of a toxicology laboratory at one university affiliated hospital. Methods: The sex, age, chief symptoms, suspiciousness of poisoning, and presumption of poison were analyzed from January 2018 to June 2019. The detection frequency and level of zolpidem in the patient blood were compared to the mental changes presented, which is the main consequence of zolpidem. Results: A total of 229 toxicological analyses, requested to a toxicological laboratory at one university affiliated hospital, were reviewed. Among 229 patients, the mean age was 54.3±20.7 years old with 113 women and 116 men. 8.7% of patients have psychiatric illness and 39.7% were poisoned intentionally. The chief symptoms detected were: mental change 55.0%, gastrointestinal 14.4%, cardiovascular 10.5%, focal neurological 7.4%, respiratory 3.5%, none 8.7%, and unknown 0.4%. A request for detailed reports revealed that causative poisons were specified only in 20.1% cases. Zolpidem was detected in 22.3% cases (51/229), with median blood level 1.26 mg/L (interquartile 0.1, 5.06 mg/L) and urine 0.90 mg/L (interquartile 0.11, 5.6 mg/L). Furthermore, zolpidem was more frequently detected in toxicology analysis of patients where mental change was the primary symptom, as compared to other symptoms (32.5% vs. 9.7%, p<0.01). Conclusion: This study reported the blood level of zolpidem in suspected poisoning patients admitted to the emergency department.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Treatment of Calcium Channel Blockers, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, and Metformin Overdose
Jae Han Jeong, Kyung Hoon Sun, Yong Jin Park, Sun Pyo Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):165-171.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.165
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An overdose of antihypertensive agents, such calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs), and the antihyperglycemic agent, metformin, leads to hypotension and lactic acidosis, respectively. A 40-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with hyperlipidemia and a weight of 110 kg presented to the emergency room with vomiting, dizziness, and hypotension following an attempted drug overdose suicide with combined CCBs, ARBs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coemzyme A reductase inhibitors, and metformins. A conventional medical treatment initially administered proved ineffective. The treatment was then changed to simultaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which was effective. This shows that simultaneous ECMO and CRRT can be an effective treatment protocol in cases of ineffective conventional medical therapy for hypotension and lactic acidosis due to an overdose of antihypertensive agents and metformin, respectively.
A Case of Cement Hardening Agent Intoxication with Acute Kidney Injury
Young Woo Seo, Tae Chang Jang, Gyun Moo Kim, Seung Hyun Ko
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):157-160.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.157
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Chronic silica nephropathy has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. On the other hand, acute intentional exposure is extremely rare. The authors' experienced a 44-year-old man who took rapid cement hardener (sodium silicate) in a suicide attempt whilst in a drunken state. He visited the emergency department approximately 1 hour after ingestion. Information on the material was obtained after 3 L gastric lavage. The patient complained of a sore throat, epigastric pain, and swollen to blood tinged vomitus. Proton pump inhibitors, hemostats, steroid, and fluids were administered. Nine hours after ingestion, he was administered 200 mL hematochezia. Immediately after, a gas-troenterologist performed an endoscopic procedure that revealed diffuse hyperemic mucosa with a color change and variable sized ulceration in the esophagus, whole stomach, and duodenal $2^{nd}$ portion. Approximately 35 hours later, persistent oligouria and progressive worsening of the renal function parameters (BUN/Cr from 12.2/1.2 to 67.5/6.6 mg/dL) occurred requiring hemodialysis. The patient underwent 8 sessions of hemodialysis for 1 month and the BUN/Cr level increased to 143.2/11.2 mg/dL and decreased to 7.6/1.5 mg/dL. He was discharged safely from the hospital. Follow up endoscopy revealed a severe esophageal stricture and he underwent endoscopic bougie dilatation. Acute cement hardener (sodium silicate) intoxication can cause renal failure and strong caustic mucosal injury. Therefore, it is important to consider early hemodialysis and treatment to prevent gastrointestinal injury and remote esophageal stricture.
Pharmaceutical Drug Poisoning after Deregulation of Over the Counter Drug Sales: Emergency Department Based In-depth Injury Surveillance
Sung Ho Kim, Hyunjong Kim, Ji Sook Lee, Junseok Park, Kyung Hwan Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Hoon Kim, Joon Min Park, Woochan Jeon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):141-148.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.141
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Purpose: The Korean government approved selected nonprescription drugs (Over-The-Counter drug; OTC drug) to be distributed in convenience stores from 15. Nov. 2012. This study examined the changes in the incidence and the clinical outcome of acute pharmaceutical drug poisoning after the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Methods: This study analyzed the data of Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Injury Surveillance (EDIIS), Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2011 to 2014. The following items were examined: age, gender, intention, alcohol association, pharmaceutical drugs resulting acute poisoning, the clinical outcomes in emergency department, and the admission rate of intensive care unit (ICU). This is a retrospective cross section observational study. Results: A total of 10,162 patients were subject to pharmaceutical drug poisoning. Acute poisoning by acetaminophen and other drugs were 1,015 (10.0%) and 9,147 (90.0%) patients, respectively. After the deregulation of OTC drug sales, acute poisoning by other drugs increased from 4,385 to 4,762 patients but acute poisoning by acetaminophen decreased from 538 to 477 patients (p<0.05). The rate of admission of acetaminophen poisoning increased from 36.1% (194/538) to 46.8% (223/477). The admission rate to the ICU by acetaminophen poisoning increased from 4.6% (25/538) to 11.3% (54/477) after the deregulation of OTC drug sales (p<0.05). Conclusion: Since the deregulation of OTC drugs sales, pharmaceutical drug poisoning has increased but acetaminophen poisoning has decreased. The rate of hospitalization and ICU admission by pharmaceutical drug poisoning with or without acetaminophen has also increased.
Antidotes Stocking and Delivery for Acute Poisoning Patients at 20 Emergency Departments in Korea 2015-2017
Seungmin Lee, Han Deok Youn, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Kyung Hwan Kim, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):131-140.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.131
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Purpose: The National Emergency Medical Center has been running a project for the storage and delivery of antidotes for acute poisoning patients of the Department of Health and Welfare, Korea. This study analyzed the results of this project over the past two years. Methods: The requests received by the National Emergency Medical Center and the data on the delivery process were analyzed. Results: This study analyzed a total of 121 patients with acute poisoning, who were requested to receive an antidote reserved at 20 key hospitals in 2015-2017, and whose age was $52.3{pm}23.5;years$; old; 54 were women. Intentional poisoning were 58.7%, and the home was the most common place of exposure (66.9%). The toxic substances were chemicals (32.2%), pesticides (27.3%), medicines (24.8%), and snake venom (4.1%). The patient's poison severity score was $2.4{pm}0.7$ (median 3) indicating moderate-to-severe toxicity. Antidote administration was the cases treated in key hospitals 67.8% (82/121), in which transferred patients accounted for 57.3% (47/82). After receiving an antidote request from a hospital other than the key hospitals, the median was 75.5 minutes (range 10 to 242 minutes) until the antidote reached the patient, and an average of 81.5 minutes was required. The results of emergency care were intensive care unit (70.3%), general wards (13.2%), death (10.7%), and discharge from emergency department (5.0%). Conclusion: This study showed that the characteristics of acute poisoning patients treated with an antidote were different from previous reports of poisoned patients in the emergency department, and basic data on the time required for delivery from key hospitals was different.
Unintentional Pharmaceutical Poisoning in the Emergency Department
Hyo Rim Jo, Choung Ah Lee, Ju Ok Park, Bo Na Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):116-123.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.116
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Purpose: The social environment of easy access to medicines and arbitrary personal decisions leading to overdose aggravate unintentional medicine poisoning. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients who visited emergency departments with unintentional medicine poisoning and reasons for poisoning based on age group. Methods: We retrospectively collected patients who experienced unintentional medicine poisoning based on data from the national injury surveillance system between 2013 and 2016. Subjects were classified into three groups based on age (0-14 years, 15-64 years, and ${geq}65;years$). We identified sex, insurance, time of poisoning, place, alcohol co-ingestion, hospitalization, death, and reason for poisoning in each age group. Results: A total of 27,472 patients visited an emergency department with poisoning during the study period; 1,958 patients who experienced unintentional poisoning were enrolled in this study. Respiratory medicine was the most frequent medicine in those younger than 15 years of age, and sedatives and antipsychotic drugs were the most common in patients older than 15 years of age. In total, 35.1% of patients older than 65 years were hospitalized. The most common reasons for poisoning were careless storage of medicine in those younger than 15 years of age and overdose due to arbitrary decisions in those older than 15 years of age. Conclusion: Unintentional medicine poisoning has distinct characteristics based on age group, and strategies to prevent poisoning should be approached differently based on age.
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2016 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Sung Phil Chung, Mi Jin Lee, Hyunggoo Kang, Bum Jin Oh, Hyun Kim, Yang Weon Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):86-93.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.86
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Purpose: Some advanced countries have reported annual statistics for poisoning based on data from poison control centers. This study was conducted to propose a baseline format and statistics of poisoning in Korea from a national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Variables related to poisoning were summarized using a similar format as the National Poison Data System in the United States. Results: A total of 7,820 poisoning patients presented to 23 EDs. Adults ${geq}20$ years accounted for 84% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 59.4%. The most common poisoning substances were therapeutic drugs (45%), gas (21%), pesticides (15%), and artificial toxic substances (13%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 3.2% (248 cases), and the most common causative substances were carbon monoxide, glyphosate, and paraquat, in order. Conclusion: This study showed the recent status of poisoning in Korea. However, a comprehensive poisoning registry based on poison control centers may be required to provide more accurate national statistics in the future.
Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Acute Benzodiazepine Overdose
Won Sik Chung, Kyung Man Cha, Hyung Min Kim, Won Jung Jeong, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):26-32.   Published online June 30, 2016
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Purpose: Aspiration pneumonia is an important complication of drug intoxication with decreased mental status. The purpose of the study is to investigate the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia in the patients of benzodiazepine overdose with or without co-ingestion of other drugs. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who visited the emergency department between January 2012 and December 2014 was conducted. Demographic data, time from ingestion to visit, initial vital signs, symptoms, mental status, medical history, laboratory results, chest radiological findings and co-ingested medications were recorded. Multiple logistic analyses were performed to verify the association between variables and the development of aspiration pneumonia. Results: A total of 249 patients presented to the emergency department with benzodiazepine overdose. Aspiration pneumonia had developed in 24 patients (9.6%). Univariate analysis revealed time from ingestion to visit was longer, Glasgow coma scale score was lower, hypoxia was presented, leukocytosis was shown, types of ingested drugs was high, less activated charcoal was applied and tricyclic antidepressants was taken in patients that developed aspiration pneumonia. Time from ingestion to visit (odds ratio (OR) 1.121, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.189, p=0.000), GCS score (OR 0.724. 95% CI, 0.624-0.839, p=0.000), oxygen saturation (OR 0.895, 95% CI, 0.835-0.959, p=0.002), and co-ingestion of TCA (OR 4.595, 95% CI, 1.169-18.063, p=0.029) were identified as risk factors of morbidity of aspiration pneumonia upon multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Time from ingestion to visit, low GCS score, low oxygen saturation and co-ingestion of TCA were risk factors of the development of aspiration pneumonia in benzodiazepine overdose patients.
Limitation of Psychiatric Intervention for Suicidal Drug Intoxication Patients in Emergency Room
Joo Hwan Lee, Seung Jun Yang, Seung Wan Eun, Sang Chan Jin, Woo Ik Choi, Sung Won Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):37-46.   Published online June 30, 2016
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Purpose: This study was designed to determine the factors hindering psychiatric intervention for suicide attempters in the emergency room (ER). Methods: Participants were 299 patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the ER for suicidal drug overdose between July 2012 and June 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had received psychiatric treatment in the ER. Medical histories and follow-up treatments were determined by examining patients' medical records and through phone surveys, and were then compared using ${chi}^2$-test and Fisher's exact test. In addition, the rate of satisfaction of the treatment group and the reasons for their dissatisfaction were also determined. Results: The treatment and non-treatment groups comprised 135 (45%) and 164 patients (55%), respectively. Factors influencing participation in psychiatric intervention were previous history of suicide attempts (p=0.004), history of psychiatric disorder (p<0.001), time of day (p=0.039), and day of the week (p=0.040) of arrival in the ER. Whether or not the patient received follow-up psychiatric treatment was not significantly relevant (p=0.300). Of the 82 patients who participated in the treatment satisfaction survey, 50.2% reported being unsatisfied, mainly because of unfriendly medical personnel (36.6%), discomfort regarding other people's perceptions (24.4%), and cursory care (14.6%). Conclusion: To raise the participation rate of psychiatric consult, cooperation with psychiatry at night and on weekends is required, and incorporation of patients without previous history of suicidal attempt or other psychiatric disorder is important. Resolution of complaints toward psychiatric consult in suicide attempt survivors is also required.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology