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6 "Hydrofluoric acid"
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Analysis of the Impact on Community Health after Accidental Leak of Hydrofluoric Acid
Young Gab Kim, Ju Taek Lee, Sang Hyun Park, Chan Hee Lee, Michael Sung Choe, Dong Wook Je, Chang Jae Lee, Taei Ko, Hye Jung Jo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(2):106-113.   Published online December 31, 2013
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the influence of a massive hydrofluoric acid spill on community health through patients who claimed to have been exposed. Methods: We analyzed 2459 patients who visited our emergency department with the claim of exposure to hydrofluoric acid, and retrospective analyses were performed. We analyzed changes in numbers of visitors per day from the day of the accidental hydrofluoric acid spill, symptoms presented by the 1924 patients, and general characteristics. Comparisons of symptoms and hematologic characteristics were made between the initially set evacuation zone(1.3 km radius parameters from the spill) and the outer zone. Results: A total of 2,459 patients who claimed exposure visited our ED from 27 September 2012 to 23 October 2012, and there was a significant increase in the number of visiting patients from day 8 of the hydrofluoric acid spill. The most common complaints were a sore throat, 729(37.9%) and no specific symptom with health concern, 547 (28.4%). Statistically significant findings were pulmonary symptoms (p=0.001), nasal symptoms (p=0.001), diarrhea (p=0.023), and skin symptoms (p=0.007). In hematologic study, a statistically significant difference was observed in white blood cell count (p=0.018), creatine phosphokinase (p<0.001), erythrocyte sediment rate (p=0.013), and phosphorus (p<0.001). Conclusion: A significant increase in the number of patients was observed one week after the accidental spill of hydrofluoric acid. The most frequent symptoms were sore throat, headache, cough, and sputum. Statistically significant increase in creatine phosphokinase level and decrease in phosphorus level were noted in patients within the evacuation zone.
A Case of Chemical Burn Caused by Trifluoroacetic Anhydride that Mimicked a Hydrofluoric Acid Burn
Jung-Soo Park, Hoon Kim, Suk-Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2010;8(1):43-45.   Published online June 30, 2010
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A 22-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department for the treatment of a chemical injury on her arm. She had accidentally spilled 99% trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) over her left forearm during an organic chemistry experiment. She visited a primary care unit, and then she was referred to our hospital for inactivation of the released fluoride ions. Her skin lesions were different from those caused by hydrofluoric acid (HF) injury. The injured area showed painful whitish maculae and patchy areas with accentuated rim. No vesiculation and bulla formation was detected. We intradermally injected a 5% solution of calcium through a 24-gauge needle into the burned skin. After the injection, she complained of more severe pain. Although TFAA contains fluorine, it does not release free fluoride ions on contact with the skin, unlike HF. In fact, application of calcium gluconate for TFAA burns is not recommended. Rather, it should be avoided since it increases pain and local abscess formation.
Acute Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure: Our Clinical Experience at Emergency Centers in Two University Teaching Hospitals
Kyu-Hong Han, Jung-Il Yang, Seung-Yook Jo, Yong-Chul Cho, Seung Ryu, Jin-Woong Lee, Seung-Whan Kim, In-Sool Yoo, Yeon-Ho You, Jung-Soo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(2):121-126.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Purpose: We investigated the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients who suffered from hydrofluoric acid chemical injury and the mechanism of damage. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were exposed to hydrofluoric acid from March 2004 to March 2009 and who were seen at the emergency centers in two university teaching hospitals. Results: Forty four patients out of 47 patients suffered from chemical burn, while the injuries of the remaining 3 could not be identified by the medical records. A total of 17 hydrofluoric acid chemical injury patients were enrolled during the study period, and their mean age was $29.6{pm}7.0$. All the patients were accidentally injured by contact with the material and none of them inhaled or ingested the material. Only 6 patients wore appropriate protective equipments and 5 underwent the water irrigation for more than 10 minutes. The most common exposure area was the hand and forearm (70.5%). Less than 1% of all of the patients had their total body surface (TBS) exposed to hydrofluoric acid (mean=0.35%). The mean time interval from calcium gluconate administration to pain relief was $33.6{pm}8.8$ hours. Conclusion: When exposed to hydrofluoric acid, it is important to wear protective equipment and undergo water irrigation for more than 10 minutes. Pain and skin damage were observed in all the patients. After treatment, we concluded that administration of calcium gluconate and pain killers was successful in relieving pain, and the prognosis was also positive for the admitted and followed up patients when less than 1% of the TBS was exposed.
Analysis of Patients with Acute Industrial Toxic Exposure at an Emergency Department in an Industrial Complex
Jun-Hyun Shin, Sung-Woo Moon, Seung-Won Baek, Sung-Ik Lim, Young-Hun Yoon, Sung-Woo Lee, Yun-Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2008;6(2):117-122.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Purpose: Surveys on poisoning usually involves intoxication rather than inhalation, skin contact, etc. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of patients who visited the emergency department in an industrial complex after acute industrial exposure to toxic materials. Methods: Medical records of patients exposed to toxic materials in the work places from April, 2006, to March, 2008, were analyzed retrospectively. Inhalation patients due to fire were excluded. Results: Subjects included 66 patients, with a mean age of $35.4{pm}10.9$ years, mostly men (91%). Toxicity occurred in 51 patients (77%) by contact, 15 patients (23%) by inhalation, and none by oral ingestion. For toxic materials, 10 patients were exposed to hydrofluoric acid, 8 to hydrochloric acid, 7 to sodium hydroxide, 7 to metals, and others. The face and hands were the most frequent exposure site by contact. Most exposures were caused by accidents, with 29 cases (42%) exposed because of carelessness or not wearing protective equipment. Most complaints were pain on exposure site, but 7 of the inhalation patients complained of dyspnea. The majority of patients with contact exposure were discharged after wound care or observation. After inhalation exposure, 1 patient died and 5 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Conclusion: Major causes of workplace exposure were not wearing protective equipment or carelessness. Although contact exposures are usually benign, cautious observation and management are required in patients with inhalation exposure.
Ingestion of Hydrofluoric acid: A rapid and fetal poisoning
Jae-Hee Lee, Jin-Hee Jung, Eun-Kyung Eo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2007;5(2):135-137.   Published online December 31, 2007
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Hydrofluoric acid is a weak inorganic acid used for etching and as rust removals. Systemic toxicity after oral ingestion induces rapid development of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia, leading to ventricular fibrillation and finally asystole. We report a case of intentional ingestion of hydrofluoric acid producing an altered mental state at the time of the patient's arrival in the emergency department. The patient died approximately 80 minutes after the exposure with asystol.
Myopericarditis by an Ingestion of Hydrofluoric acid - A case report
Sun Hyu Kim, Hyun Kim, Ho Jin Ji, Yong Soo Jang, Sung Bum Oh, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):63-66.   Published online June 30, 2004
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Hydrofluoric acid (HF), one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purpose. Hydrofluoric acid injuries has a potential for both systemic as well as severe local tissue destruction. One of the most serious consequences of severe exposure to HF by any route is marked lowering of serum calcium (hypocalcemia) and other metabolic changes, such as hypomagnesemia and which may result in a fatal outcome if not recognized and treated. promptly cardiotoxicity is not well known except arrhythmias, which are a primary cause of death. We report a case of myopericarditis by ingestion of hydrofluoric acid.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology