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Prediction of pathogen positive-culture results in acute poisoning patients with suspected aspiration
Sungha Baek, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):75-81.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.75
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Purpose: This study sought to compare the characteristics of patients with pathogen-positive and negative cultures, and to investigate factors predicting pathogen-positive culture results in patients of acute poisoning with suspected aspiration. Methods: Consecutive patients with acute poisoning admitted to an intensive care unit between January 2016 and December 2018 were retrospectively studied. Respiratory specimens were collected from the enrolled patients at the time of the suspected aspiration. We compared the characteristics of patients with pathogen-positive and negative culture results and analyzed the causative pathogens. Results: Among the 526 patients, 325 showed no clinical features that could be attributed to aspiration, and 201 patients had clinical features suggestive of aspiration. Of these, 113 patients had pathogen-positive culture, 61 were negative, and the specimens of 27 patients contained poor-quality sputum. In univariate analysis, patients with a positive culture showed a longer time to culture from ingestion (p=0.01), faster heart rate (p=0.01), and higher partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) (p=0.02) than patients with negative culture. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PaO2/FiO2 (adjusted odd ratio, 1.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002-1.008; p=0.005) was a significant risk factor for pathogen-positive culture. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of PaO2/FiO2 was 0.591 (95% CI, 0.510-0.669, p=0.05). Gram-negative pathogens (GNPs) were predominant and at least one GNP was observed in 84 (73.3%) patients among those with pathogen positive culture. Conclusion: We failed to find any clinical factors associated with positive culture results. Antibiotics that cover GNPs could be considered when deciding the initial antibiotic regimen at the time of suspected aspiration.
Characteristics of poisoning patients visiting emergency departments before and after the COVID-19 pandemic
Jae Kee Seung, Cho Yongil, Kang Hyunggoo, Ho Lim Tae, Oh Jaehoon, Sung Ko Byuk, Lee Juncheol
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):66-74.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.66
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Purpose: This study investigates the characteristics and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments before and after the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Methods: This nationwide retrospective observational study included acute poisoning patients who visited the emergency departments between February 1 to December 31, 2020, which has been determined as the pandemic period. The same periods in 2018 and 2019 were designated as the control periods. The primary outcome assessed was the length of stay in emergency departments (EDLOS). The secondary outcomes examined were intensive care unit admission rate and in-hospital mortality rate before and after the pandemic. A subgroup analysis was performed for inpatients and intentional poisoning patients. Results: A total of 163,560 patients were included in the study. During the pandemic, the proportion of women increased from 50.0% in 2018 and 50.3% in 2019 to 52.5% in 2020. Patients aged 20-29 years increased from 13.4% in 2018 and 13.9% in 2019 to 16.6% in 2020. A rise in cases of intentional poisoning was also noted - from 33.9% in 2018 and 34.0% in 2019 to 38.4% in 2020. Evaluating the hospitalized poisoned patients revealed that the EDLOS increased from 3.8 hours in 2018 and 3.7 hours in 2019 to 4.2 hours in 2020. ICU admissions were also markedly increased (2018, 48.2%; 2019, 51.8%; 2020, 53.2%) among hospitalized patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments in Korea. The proportion of young adults, women, and intentional poisoning patients has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prolonged length of stay at the emergency department and an increased rate of intensive care unit admissions were determined in hospitalized acute poisoning patients.

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  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 108.     CrossRef
Comparative Analysis of decreased Mental state Patients after Overdose with Sedative-hypnotics
Seung Jae Oh, Soo Hyung Cho, So Yeon Ryu
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):8-14.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.8
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Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate how sedative-hypnotics affect the occurrence and severity of the patient's symptoms. In addition, we conducted a study to determine the type of patients who reacted severely and required hospitalization; patients were accordingly classified as hospitalized patients and patients discharged from the emergency room. Methods: From January 2017 to December 2019, we investigated the demographics, drug information, history, laboratory tests, and severity of patients who visited our emergency department and were diagnosed with benzodiazepine, zolpidem, and doxylamine succinate overdose. We further compared details of hospitalized patients and discharged patients. Results: Subjects who had overdosed and visited the ED included 120 for benzodiazepine, 147 for zolpidem, and 27 for doxylamine succinate. Comparisons between the three groups revealed differences in their early diagnosis, psychiatric history, and sleep disturbance. Differences between groups were also determined for mental state, poisoning history, treatment received in the intensive care unit, and intubation and ventilator support. In cases of benzodiazepine overdose, we obtained a high hospitalization rate (40.0%), admission to the intensive care unit (24.2%), and intubation rate (18.3%). Comparisons between hospitalized patients and discharged groups showed differences in transferred patients, early diagnosis, and mental state. Conclusion: Patients poisoned by sedative-hypnotics are increasing every year. In cases of benzodiazepine and zolpidem, the hospitalization rates were high, and benzodiazepine overdose resulted in hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia in a majority of cases. Therefore, active treatment and quick decisions in the emergency room are greatly required.
Assessment of early nutritional state in critical patients with intoxication and the effect of nutritional status on prognosis
Dong-wan Ko, Sangcheon Choi, Young-gi Min, Hyuk jin Lee, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):93-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.93
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Purpose: Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. Results: 155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. Conclusion: NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.
The Significance of the Strong Ion Gap in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury and In-hospital Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Poisoning
Tae Jin Sim, Jae Wan Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Haewon Jung, Jungbae Park, Kang Suk Seo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):72-82.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.72
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Purpose: A high anion gap (AG) is known to be a significant risk factor for serious acid-base imbalances and death in acute poisoning cases. The strong ion difference (SID), or strong ion gap (SIG), has recently been used to predict in-hospital mortality or acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This study presents a comprehensive acid-base analysis in order to identify the predictive value of the SIG for disease severity in severe poisoning. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on acute poisoning patients treated in the emergency intensive care unit (ICU) between December 2015 and November 2020. Initial serum electrolytes, base deficit (BD), AG, SIG, and laboratory parameters were concurrently measured upon hospital arrival and were subsequently used along with Stewart's approach to acid-base analysis to predict AKI development and in-hospital death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and logistic regression analysis were used as statistical tests. Results: Overall, 343 patients who were treated in the intensive care unit were enrolled. The initial levels of lactate, AG, and BD were significantly higher in the AKI group (n=62). Both effective SID [SIDe] (20.3 vs. 26.4 mEq/L, p<0.001) and SIG (20.2 vs. 16.5 mEq/L, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the AKI group; however, the AUC of serum SIDe was 0.842 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.799-0.879). Serum SIDe had a higher predictive capacity for AKI than initial creatinine (AUC=0.796, 95% CI=0.749-0.837), BD (AUC=0.761, 95% CI=0.712-0.805), and AG (AUC=0.660, 95% CI=0.607-0.711). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that diabetes, lactic acidosis, high SIG, and low SIDe were significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Initial SIDe and SIG were identified as useful predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality in intoxicated patients who were critically ill. Further research is necessary to evaluate the physiological nature of the toxicant or unmeasured anions in such patients.
Analysis of social factors influencing authenticity of suicide for patient who attempt to suicide in emergency department: Retrospective study based Post-suicidal Care Program data
Jae-Gu Ji, Yang-Weon Kim, Ji-Hun Kang, Yun-Deok Jang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):8-16.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.8
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Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze the social factors influencing the 'authenticity of suicidal ideation' based post-suicidal care programs in emergency departments (EDs). Methods: This retrospective study was an analysis using the data of patients who had attempted suicide and visited the ED in tertiary urban hospitals from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018. The variables examined included gender, age, history of previous psychiatric disease, suicide method, and the number of previous attempts. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors influencing the registration rate for the community-based post-suicide care program. Results: Overall,1,460 suicides were analyzed, 177 (1.16%) showed a high authenticity of suicide. The social factors influencing the authenticity of suicide intent were the unmarried status of men and women, joblessness, history of mental illnesses, more than two previous suicide attempts, the influence of alcohol, and an attempt to commit suicide after midnight more specifically between 24:00 to 6:00 hours in the morning (p<.05). The factors influencing the severity of the condition of high authenticity suicide patients were low Glasgow coma scores (12 points or less), lactate levels, and oxygen saturation observed in the patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit for treatment and died (p<.05). Conclusion: The need for evidence-based preventive measures and early assessment tools at the emergency medicine level is emphasized to reduce the rate of suicide attempts. If the results of this study are used in the management of suicide prevention, the evaluation of the authenticity of suicide intent will be more likely to be made at the emergency medicine level, allowing the severity to be assessed earlier.

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  • Effect of Multidisciplinary Program for Relapse Prevention on Abstinence Self-efficacy, Impulsivity and Suicidal Ideation among Patients with Substance Use Disorder
    Soyun An, Wanju Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing.2023; 32(2): 216.     CrossRef
Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Severe Poisoning Patients and Analysis of Prognostic Factors
Young Yun Jung, Chul Min Ha, Sung Tae Jung, Hyoung Ju Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):94-101.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.94
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Purpose: This study examined the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted or died in the emergency medical center with acute-poisoning to investigate the variables related to the prognosis. Methods: The data were collected from poisoning patients admitted or died in the emergency medical center of a general hospital located in Seoul, from January 2014 to February 2020. The subjects of this study were 190 patients. The medical records were screened retrospectively, and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients in the emergency room (ER) and ICU were examined to investigate the contributing factors that influence the poor prognosis. Results: The study analyzed 182 patients who survived after being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The results are as follows. The mental change (87.4%) was the most common symptom. Sedative poisoning (49.5%) was the commonest cause. For most patients, pneumonia (26.9%) was the most common complication. Hypotension (23.7%), tachycardia (42.1%), fever (15.8%), seizures (10.5%), dyspnea (2.6%), high poisoning severity score (PSS), type of toxic material, mechanical ventilator application (39.5%), inotropes application (39.5%), and pneumonia (55.3%) were correlated the LOS over 5 days in the ICU. 8 patients died. In the case of death pesticides and carbon monoxide were the main toxic materials; tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypotension were the main symptoms, and a mechanical ventilator and inotropes were applied. Conclusion: Patients with unstable vital signs, high PSS, and non-pharmaceutical poisoning had a prolonged LOS in the ICU and a poor prognosis.
Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Glyphosate Poisoning
Hyung Hun Park, Kyu Ill Choi, Je Won Lee, Jung Min Park, Jinwook Park, Sang Moon Noh, Jaekyung Cho, Daero Lee, Jae Chul Cho, Dong Chan Park, Yang Hun Kim, Joo Hwan Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):110-115.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.110
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Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with glyphosate poisoning has a poor prognosis. This study aimed to predict the risk factors for AKI in patients with glyphosate poisoning at the emergency department (ED). Methods: Clinical data on glyphosate poisoning patients at ED who were older than 18 years were collected retrospectively between January 2013 and December 2019. The clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes of the AKI group in patients with glyphosate poisoning were compared with the non-AKI (NAKI) group. Results: Of 63 glyphosate poisoning patients, AKI was observed in 15 (23.8%). The AKI patients group showed the following: old age (p=0.038), low systolic blood pressure (p=0.021), large amount of ingestion (p=0.026), delayed hospital visits (p=0.009), high white blood cells (WBC) (p<0.001), high neutrophil counts (p<0.001), high neutrophil-lymphocyte (LN) ratios (p<0.001), high serum potassium (p=0.005), low arterial blood pH (p=0.015), and low pO2 (p=0.021), low bicarbonate (p=0.009), and high Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) (p<0.001). AKI patients required hemodialysis, ventilator care (p<0.001, p=0.002), and inotropics (p<0.001). They also showed more intensive care unit admission (p<0.001), longer hospitalization (p<0.001), and high mortality (p<0.001). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that high WBCs (OR, 1.223) and increased LN ratios (OR, 1.414) were independently associated with the occurrence of AKI. Conclusion: In patients with glyphosate poisoning at ED, high WBCs and increased LN ratios can help predict the occurrence of AKI.
Risk Factors of Delirium in ICU Patients with Acute Poisoning
Hee Yeon Kim, Kyung Man Cha, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2019;17(1):14-20.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2019.17.1.14
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Purpose: This study estimated the incidence of delirium and associated risk factors and outcomes in ICU patients with acute poisoning. Methods: Data were collected from ICU patients over 18 years of age that were admitted via the emergency center after presenting with poisoning from 2010 to 2015. Delirium was assessed retrospectively using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Risk factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 199 patients participated in this study and 68 (34.2%) were diagnosed with delirium based on the ICDSC score. The delirium group showed a significantly higher association with prolonged length of stay in the hospital and ICU in comparison with the non-delirium group. The delirium group was associated with greater use of physical restraint. A statistically greater number of patients with pharmaceutical substance poisoning developed delirium over a short period of time than those with non-pharmaceutical substance poisoning. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, sex, past history, GCS score, vital signs, application of ventilator care and renal replacement therapy. Conclusion: The finding that the delirium group had a greater length of stay in both the hospital and the ICU is consistent with the results of previous worldwide studies of the effects of delirium on the prognosis of patients who were admitted to the ICU, suggesting the possibility for domestic application. Additionally, use of physical restraint was positively related to the incidence of delirium. Thus, interventions for minimizing the use of physical restraints and considering alternatives are needed.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictor of Aspiration Pneumonia in Drug Intoxication Patients
Jeong Beom Lee, Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seung Woon Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyung Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho, Beom Sok Seo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):61-67.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.61
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Purpose: To evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in drug intoxication (DI) patients in the emergency department (ED) and to evaluate the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission/intensive care unit (ICU) admission Methods: A total of 466 patients diagnosed with DI in the ED from January 2016 to December 2017 were included in the analysis. The clinical and laboratory results, including NLR, were evaluated as variables. NLR was calculated as the absolute neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count. To evaluate the prognosis of DI, data on the development of aspiration pneumonia were obtained. Also, we evaluated the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission and between NLR and length of ICU admission. Statistically, multivariate logistic regression analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson's correlation (${ ho}$) were performed. Results: Among the 466 DI patients, 86 (18.5%) developed aspiration pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed NLR as an independent factor in predicting aspiration pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.7; p=0.001). NLR showed excellent predictive performance for aspiration pneumonia (areas under the ROC curves, 0.815; cut-off value, 3.47; p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 72.6%. No correlations between NLR and length of hospital admission (${ ho}=0.195$) and between NLR and length of ICU admission (${ ho}=0.092$) were observed. Conclusion: The NLR is a simple and effective marker for predicting the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in DI patients. Emergency physicians should be alert for aspiration pneumonia in DI patients with high NLR value (>3.47).
Pharmaceutical Drug Poisoning after Deregulation of Over the Counter Drug Sales: Emergency Department Based In-depth Injury Surveillance
Sung Ho Kim, Hyunjong Kim, Ji Sook Lee, Junseok Park, Kyung Hwan Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Hoon Kim, Joon Min Park, Woochan Jeon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):141-148.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.141
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Purpose: The Korean government approved selected nonprescription drugs (Over-The-Counter drug; OTC drug) to be distributed in convenience stores from 15. Nov. 2012. This study examined the changes in the incidence and the clinical outcome of acute pharmaceutical drug poisoning after the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Methods: This study analyzed the data of Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Injury Surveillance (EDIIS), Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2011 to 2014. The following items were examined: age, gender, intention, alcohol association, pharmaceutical drugs resulting acute poisoning, the clinical outcomes in emergency department, and the admission rate of intensive care unit (ICU). This is a retrospective cross section observational study. Results: A total of 10,162 patients were subject to pharmaceutical drug poisoning. Acute poisoning by acetaminophen and other drugs were 1,015 (10.0%) and 9,147 (90.0%) patients, respectively. After the deregulation of OTC drug sales, acute poisoning by other drugs increased from 4,385 to 4,762 patients but acute poisoning by acetaminophen decreased from 538 to 477 patients (p<0.05). The rate of admission of acetaminophen poisoning increased from 36.1% (194/538) to 46.8% (223/477). The admission rate to the ICU by acetaminophen poisoning increased from 4.6% (25/538) to 11.3% (54/477) after the deregulation of OTC drug sales (p<0.05). Conclusion: Since the deregulation of OTC drugs sales, pharmaceutical drug poisoning has increased but acetaminophen poisoning has decreased. The rate of hospitalization and ICU admission by pharmaceutical drug poisoning with or without acetaminophen has also increased.
Antidotes Stocking and Delivery for Acute Poisoning Patients at 20 Emergency Departments in Korea 2015-2017
Seungmin Lee, Han Deok Youn, Hanseok Chang, Sinae Won, Kyung Hwan Kim, Bum Jin Oh
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):131-140.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.131
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Purpose: The National Emergency Medical Center has been running a project for the storage and delivery of antidotes for acute poisoning patients of the Department of Health and Welfare, Korea. This study analyzed the results of this project over the past two years. Methods: The requests received by the National Emergency Medical Center and the data on the delivery process were analyzed. Results: This study analyzed a total of 121 patients with acute poisoning, who were requested to receive an antidote reserved at 20 key hospitals in 2015-2017, and whose age was $52.3{pm}23.5;years$; old; 54 were women. Intentional poisoning were 58.7%, and the home was the most common place of exposure (66.9%). The toxic substances were chemicals (32.2%), pesticides (27.3%), medicines (24.8%), and snake venom (4.1%). The patient's poison severity score was $2.4{pm}0.7$ (median 3) indicating moderate-to-severe toxicity. Antidote administration was the cases treated in key hospitals 67.8% (82/121), in which transferred patients accounted for 57.3% (47/82). After receiving an antidote request from a hospital other than the key hospitals, the median was 75.5 minutes (range 10 to 242 minutes) until the antidote reached the patient, and an average of 81.5 minutes was required. The results of emergency care were intensive care unit (70.3%), general wards (13.2%), death (10.7%), and discharge from emergency department (5.0%). Conclusion: This study showed that the characteristics of acute poisoning patients treated with an antidote were different from previous reports of poisoned patients in the emergency department, and basic data on the time required for delivery from key hospitals was different.
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Severity of Glyphosate and Glufosinate Herbicide Poisoning Patients
Hyung Sun Joo, Tae Ho Yoo, Soo Hyung Cho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):124-130.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.124
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Purpose: The number of glyphosate and glufosinate intoxication cases are increasing in Korea. This study was undertaken is to compare the clinical manifestations of poisoning by these two herbicides and to document severities and clinical outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated cases of glyphosate or glufosinate intoxication among patients that visited our emergency department between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017. Incidences of intoxications were analyzed over this five year period, and underlying diseases, transportation, mental state, shock occurrence, inotropics, gastric lavage, charcoal administration, intubation and ventilator therapy, and hemodialysis were investigated. In addition, we included transfer to the intensive care unit, incidences of pneumonia and of other complications, death, and hopeless discharge. Results: There were 119 cases of glyphosate intoxication and 42 of glufosinate intoxication. Levels of consciousness were lower for glufosinate and vasopressor usage was higher due to a high shock rate (p=0.019). In addition, many patients were referred to the ICU for intubation and ventilation. The incidences of pneumonia and of other complications were significantly higher for glufosinate. Conclusion: Overall glufosinate intoxication was found to be more severe than glyphosate intoxication as determined by complication and ICU admission rates.
Low Plasma Insulin Level Prolonged Hypoglycemia after High dose Insulin Lispro Injection
Jeong Ho Kang, Hyun Soo Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):151-154.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.151
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Increased plasma insulin levels are often observed in exogenous insulin overdose patients. However, plasma insulin level may decrease with time. We report a case of low plasma insulin level hypoglycemia after insulin lispro overdose. The patient was a 37-year-old man with no previous medical history who suspected insulin lispro overdose. Upon arrival, his Glasgow coma scale was 3 points and his blood sugar level (BSL) was 24 mg/dl. We found five humalog-quick-pen (insulin lispro) in his bag. There was no elevation of glucose level, despite an initial 50 ml bolus of 50% glucose and 150 cc/hr of 10% dextrose continuous intravenous infusion. He also suffered from generalized tonic-clonic seizure, which was treated with lorazepam and phenytoin. We conducted endotracheal intubation, after which he was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). There were recurrent events of hypoglycemia below BSL<50 mg/dl after admission. We repeatedly infused 50 ml 50% glucose 10 times and administered 1 mg of glucagon two times. The plasma insulin level was 0.2 uU/ml on initial blood sampling and 0.2 uU/ml after 5 hours. After 13 hours, his BSL stabilized but his mental status had not recovered. Diffuse brain injury was observed upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and severe diffuse cerebral dysfunction was found on electroencephalography (EEG). Despite 35 days of ICU care, he died from ventilator associated pneumonia.
Epidemiologic Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Emergency Department Based Injury In-depth Surveillance of Twenty Hospitals
Sohyun Bae, Jisook Lee, Kyunghwan Kim, Junseok Park, Dongwun Shin, Hyunjong Kim, Joonmin Park, Hoon Kim, Woochan Jeon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(2):122-128.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2016.14.2.122
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Purpose: This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed data from the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance of 20 hospitals (2011-2014). We included patients whose mechanism of injury was acute CO poisoning caused by inhalation of gases from charcoal or briquettes. We surveyed the annual frequency, gender, age, result of emergency treatment, rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, result of admission, association with alcohol, and place of accident. We also surveyed the cause and experience of past suicide attempts by intentional poisoning. Results: A total of 3,405 patients were included (2,015 (59.2%) and 1,390 (40.8%) males and females, respectively) with a mean age of $39.83{pm}18.51$ year old. The results revealed that the annual frequency of CO poisoning had increased and the frequency of unintentional CO poisoning was higher than that of intentional CO poisoning in January, February and December. The mean age of intentional CO poisoning was younger than that of unintentional CO poisoning ($38.41{pm}13.03$ vs $40.95{pm}21.83$) (p<0.001). The rates of discharge against medical advice (DAMA), ICU care and alcohol association for intentional CO poisoning were higher than for unintentional CO poisoning (36.4% vs 14.0%, 17.8% vs 4.7%, 45.2% vs 5.6%) (p<0.001). The most common place of CO poisoning was in one's residence. Conclusion: The annual frequency of total CO poisoning has increased, and unintentional CO poisoning showed seasonal variation. DAMA, ICU care, and alcohol association of intentional CO poisoning were higher than those of unintentional CO poisoning.

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  • Prevalence of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Korea: Analysis of National Claims Data in 2010–2019
    Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Hye Sun Lee, Goeun Park, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology