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9 "Poison Control Center"
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Original Article
2022 Annual Report of the Seoul Poison Control Center
Yo Han Shin, Sijin Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):39-55.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00006
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: The Korea University Anam Hospital Seoul Poison Control Center (SeoulPCC) was established in accordance with Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance No. 7524 “Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance on the Prevention of Toxic Substances Poisoning and Accident Safety.” Herein, the center’s annual performance in terms of project results and consultation information for 2022 are reported.
Methods
SeoulPCC operates a helpline (Help Call, 1855-2221) that the general public can use from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM on weekdays, as well as chatting and chatbot counseling through KakaoTalk’s “Seoul Poison Control Center,” and one-on-one online counseling through the website. Additionally, it has constructed a system for communicating with the general public through social media. Poisoning disease information collected from SeoulPCC from January to December 2022 was analyzed according to the number of requests, age of exposure, gender, location, and reason. Requests from the general public were summarized, and a brief image presenting information on poisoning disease-related consultations was produced.
Results
SeoulPCC has a database containing information on 188,065 toxic substances collected by public institutions and provides this information to the general public and medical staff through its website. In 2022, consultations were performed through phone calls and SNS (social networking service) for 577 cases of poison information and first aid treatment due to exposure to toxic substances. There were 1,431 instances of providing poison information services. The annual requests included 512 exposure cases and 65 non-exposure cases. Furthermore, 366 cases were in Seoul, 145 cases were outside of Seoul, and 66 had an unknown location. The exposure cases included 161 requests from the general public and 351 requests from medical staff.
Conclusion
This is the first annual report in Korea to analyze the occurrence of poisoning based on consultations. It is of major significance that this report serves as a starting point for identifying and tracking the aspects and characteristics of poisoning cases in the pre-hospital stage. In the future, poisoning-related disease information provided through consultations and at the emergency room should be linked, and through real-time collection and analysis, this information should be used as basic data for poisoning disease management policies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Patterns of self-harm/suicide attempters who visited emergency department over the past 10 years and changes in poisoning as a major method (2011–2020)
    Kyu Hyun Pai, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Juhyun Song, Sijin Lee, Ji Hwan Park, Jeijoon Song
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 69.     CrossRef
Systematic review for economic benefit of poison control center
Eunah Han, Hyuna Hwang, Gina Yu, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Je Sung You, Minhong Choa, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.1
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the socio-economic benefits of the poison control center (PCC) and to assess whether telephone counseling at the poison control center affects the frequency of emergency room visits, hospitalization, and length of stay of patients with acute poisoning. Methods: The authors conducted a medical literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts for eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality using a standardized tool. Key results such as the cost-benefit ratio, hospital stay days, unnecessary emergency room visits or hospitalizations, and reduced hospital charges were extracted from the studies. When meta-analysis was possible, it was performed using RevMan software (RevMan version 5.4). Results: Among 299 non-duplicated studies, 19 were relevant to the study questions. The cost-benefit ratios of PCC showed a wide range from 0.76 to 36 (average 6.8) according to the level of the medical expense of each country and whether the study included intentional poisoning. PCC reduced unnecessary visits to healthcare facilities. PCC consultation shortened the length of hospital stay by 1.82 (95% CI, 1.07-2.57) days. Conclusion: The systematic review and meta-analysis support the hypothesis that the PCC operation is cost-beneficial. However, when implementing the PCC concept in Korea in the future, it is necessary to prepare an institutional framework to ensure a costeffective model.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 2022 Annual Report of the Seoul Poison Control Center
    Yo Han Shin, Sijin Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 39.     CrossRef
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2017-18 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Jiyoon Koh, Woochan Jeon, Hyunggoo Kang, Yang Weon Kim, Hyun Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Mi Jin Lee, Byeong Jo Chun, Sung Phil Chung, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):85-93.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.85
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The annual statistics for poisoning are reported based on the data from poison control centers in many advanced countries. In 2016 a study was conducted to analyze the 2016 Korea Poisoning status. This study was conducted to make a better annual report for poisoning statistics in Korea from a 2017-2018 national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on the data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017-2018. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Results: A total of 17714 patients presented to 23 EDs because of poisoning. Adults above 20 years old age accounted for 84.6% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 60.8%. The poisoning substance presented in the ED were therapeutic drugs (51.2%), gas (20.3%), pesticides (16.4%), and artificial substances (11.4%). Overall, 35% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 2.4% (422 cases), and the most common fatal substances in order were carbon monoxide, other herbicides, and paraquat. Conclusion: This study showed the 2017-2018 status of poisoning in Korea. The prognosis is different from the cause of poisoning and the initial mental state of the patient. Therefore, appropriate methods for preventing poisoning and therapeutic plans in specific situations are needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
    Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
    Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Prioritising Risk Factors for Prescription Drug Overdose among Older Adults in South Korea: A Multi-Method Study
    Eun-Hae Lee, Ju-Ok Park, Joon-Pil Cho, Choung-Ah Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5948.     CrossRef
Analysis of Poisoning Patients Using 2016 ED Based Injury in-depth Surveillance Data
Sung Phil Chung, Mi Jin Lee, Hyunggoo Kang, Bum Jin Oh, Hyun Kim, Yang Weon Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Kyung Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):86-93.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.86
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Some advanced countries have reported annual statistics for poisoning based on data from poison control centers. This study was conducted to propose a baseline format and statistics of poisoning in Korea from a national representative database. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of poisoning patients based on data from an emergency department (ED) based injury in-depth surveillance project by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016. Bite or sting injuries were not included. Variables related to poisoning were summarized using a similar format as the National Poison Data System in the United States. Results: A total of 7,820 poisoning patients presented to 23 EDs. Adults ${geq}20$ years accounted for 84% of the population, while the proportion of intentional poisoning was 59.4%. The most common poisoning substances were therapeutic drugs (45%), gas (21%), pesticides (15%), and artificial toxic substances (13%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were admitted for further treatment. The mortality was 3.2% (248 cases), and the most common causative substances were carbon monoxide, glyphosate, and paraquat, in order. Conclusion: This study showed the recent status of poisoning in Korea. However, a comprehensive poisoning registry based on poison control centers may be required to provide more accurate national statistics in the future.
A Case Report of Acute Nicotine Poisoning from Subcutaneous Injection of Nicotine Solution for Electronic Cigarette
Jiun Choi, Dong Ryul Ko, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(1):60-64.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.1.60
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Nicotine-poisoning related to the electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) is increasing worldwide. Moreover, the American Association of Poison Control Centers has advised the public to use caution with e-cigarette devices and highly concentrated liquid nicotine after a surge in related poisonings. We report here the first case of nicotine poisoning from self-injected e-cigarette fluid in Korea. A 17-year-old male patient subcutaneously injected himself with 0.5 ml of nicotine solution for an electronic cigarette via the dorsum of his hand, after which he complained of nausea, vomiting, dizziness and dyspnea. His vital signs were within the normal range, but his mental status was drowsy. He was admitted for observation and the symptoms disappeared the following day. Sinus bradycardia with a rate of 45/min was observed on the third hospital day, but improved after 6 hours. He was discharged without complications.
The Survey of Intoxication in the Two Hospitals of the City of Goyang
Kyung-Hwan Kim, Jun-Soek Park, Dong-Wun Shin, Jun-Young Rho, Hey-Jin Kim, Hong-Du Gu, Jin-Kyung Cho, Ah-Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):25-31.   Published online June 30, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In the year of 2005, it enforced the basic study for establishing program of Poison Control Center by National Institute of Toxicologic Research. The object of our survey is to analyze the characteristics of intoxication from the City of Goyang by same protocol. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of medical records of the intoxication patient in the two hospitals of the Goyang from 2004 June 1st to 2005 May 31th. The investigation protocol applied the TESS report form which was used from the Basic study for establishing program of Poison Control Center. Results: The intoxication patients were total 269 persons, the patients of A hospital were 184 persons, B hospital were 185 persons. The most common intoxication materials were medicines, in afterwords it was an agricultural chemical. The most common place of intoxication was the home. The intentional suicidal attempts in the reason of intoxication were 51.2%. The rate of the patients who discharges from the emergency department was 50.4% and death rate was 4.3%. Conclusion: We concluded that the continuous and systemic report and analysis should be accomplished from the Goyang area.
Research on Poisoning Data Collection using Toxic Exposure Surveillance System: Retrospective Preliminary Survey
Bum-Jin Oh, Won Kim, Gyu-Chong Cho, Hui-Dong Kang, Yoo-Dong Shon, Jae-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2006;4(1):32-43.   Published online June 30, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) is widely used for poisoning data collection and making a counterplan. But, there were few reports about poisoning data collection using TESS in Korea. The aim was to collect poisoning data using TESS report form and investigate the recognition of emergency physician about the necessity of TESS as preliminary survey. Methods: Retrospectively, we gathered data from hospital records about the patient who admitted hospital emergency room due to poisoning. Date were gathered by paper and/or web client system report form in patients recruited by ICD-10 codes Results: From Jun 2004 to May 2005,3,203 patients were enrolled in 30 hospitals and their mean age was $44.9{pm}20.3years$ old(male: female = 1,565: 1,638). The most frequent site of exposure was their own residence (73.2%, 2,345/3,203) and most of reported patients were older than 20 years(89.7%, 2,871/3,203). Frequent substances involved in poisoning were medication(41.9%) and pesticide(33.3%). Intentional poisoning was 60.7%(1,954). In fatality, overall frequency was 5.1%(162/3,203) and the most frequent route of exposure was ingestion(96.3%, 156/162) and the most frequent substance was pesticide(85.2%, 138/ 162). Antidotes were administered in 202 patients(2-PAM, atropine, antivenin, N-acetylcystein, vitamin K, flumazenil, ethanol, methylene blue, naloxone, calcium compound). 19 of 20 emergency physicians agreed with necessity of TESS. Conclusion: Data collection using TESS report form showed preliminary poisoning events in Korea. Frequent poisoning substance were medication and pesticide. The fatality was mainly related with pesticide ingestion. Many doctors in emergency room recognized the necessity of TESS.
The Toxic Exposure Patients of Daejon Province by Modified TESS Style
Jung Kyoo Park, Sung Phil Jeong, Seung Hwan Kim, In Sui Yoo, Joon Seok Park, Jin Hyun Yoo, Yeong Mo Yang, Si Kyung Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2004;2(1):1-6.   Published online June 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: A number of reports about the intoxicated patients have been introduced, but there were few multicenter studies. The purpose of this study was to analyse the patients with toxic exposure in the Daejon province. Methods: The patients who were presented to the four academic emergency departments in Daejon with toxic exposure were enrolled from January to June 2003. The collected variables were according to the form which modified from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Results: The toxic exposure patients were 362 cases which is $0.78\%$ of total patients presented to the emergency department. The most common exposure site was home ($84\%$). Eighteen percent of cases were exposed by two or more substances. The most common substance was the pesticides ($34.8\%$), and the non-prescription drugs ($32.6\%$) was followed. The suicidal attempt was the top reason for exposure ($67.1\%$). The route of exposure other than ingestion was $3.6\%$. Although the most patients left the hospital within a day, the average treatment period was 4.4 days. Thirty-one patients ($8.6\%$) were expired, and 22 among them were exposed to the paraquat. Conclusion: We reported the current status of toxic exposure in Daejon province by modified TESS style.
Statistics of Poison Exposure in Korea
Jung-Yun Hwang, Jae-Ook Ko
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2003;1(1):59-64.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective: This study was conducted for the nationwide statistical survey of poison exposure to provide the rationale for establishing and developing the poison control center (PCC) in Korea. Design: Study group for Korea PCC in National Medical Center reviewed the medical literature on poison exposure of Korea from death reports of National Statistical Office (NSO), the toxic exposure statistics from the report of National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC), and poison related data from 119 ambulance services (FD) for the purpose of obtaining the poison and its related data. We also conducted questionnaire from the expert who work in emergency medicine department at the designated 320 emergency medical centers in Korea for the preparedness and acknowledgement about necessity of PCC and their need for that. Results: We reviewed the reliable data from the death report of NSO, poison exposure data from NHIC, and running report from FD. Poisoning death occured at home ($36.7\%$) and hospital ($46.3\%$). Poisoning are more common in rural area than the city area. Patients were seen more frequently in the local clinics than in any hospital. The drugs ($45.7\%$) and pesticide ($18.1\%$) are common poison. Common place to poison exposure were residential area ($39.9\%$), industry ($9\%$). mass residential area ($7\%$). and farm ($6\%$). The education level were primary school ($33.2\%$), high school ($23.7\%$), and middle schol ($21.3\%$) in order. We have to provide the poison guideline for lay public to understand easily, and for medical experts. The medical facilities need to be invested and have more interest for toxicology. All medical staff who work in the designated emergency medical center want PCC to establish. They want to have poison information from hospital ($91.3\%$), regional poison information center ($45.0\%$), regional poison control center ($52.5\%$), nationwide poison information center ($48.8\%$), nationwide poison control center ($46.25\%$), as a role of poison control center. They also want that pcc have poison epidemiologic study and statstics, training program for the experts, registration of rare case of posion on website, reflection of policies to activities for antidote production etc., speedy consultation system for poison analysis, public education, establishment of both regional and national pee, etc. Conclusion: Poison center must be established to provide poison information for all the public and medical experitise, focusing rural area and private clinic, to detoxify, to reduce the cost, time, morbity, and mortality through the whole country.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology