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Patterns of self-harm/suicide attempters who visited emergency department over the past 10 years and changes in poisoning as a major method (2011–2020)
Kyu Hyun Pai, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Juhyun Song, Sijin Lee, Ji Hwan Park, Jeijoon Song
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):69-80.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Suicide ranks among the top causes of death among youth in South Korea. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of suicidal individuals treated at emergency departments between 2011 and 2020.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from January 2011 to December 2020 in the Injury Surveillance Cohort, a prospective registry. Patients’ sex, age, mortality, methods of self-harm, and previous suicide attempts were analyzed. The methods of self-harm were categorized into falls, asphyxiation, blunt injuries, penetrating injuries, poisoning, and others. Sub-groups with and without poisoning were compared.
Results
The proportion of self-harm/suicide attempts increased from 2.3% (2011) to 5.0% (2020). The mortality rate decreased from 10.8% (2011) to 6.3% (2020). Poisoning was the most common method (61.7%). Mortality rates ranged from 42.0% for asphyxiation to 0.2% for blunt injuries. Individuals in their 20s showed a marked increase in suicide/self-harm attempts, especially in the last three years. A large proportion of decedents in their 70s or older (52.6%) used poisoning as a method of suicide. The percentage of individuals with two or more previous attempts rose from 7.1% (2011) to 19.7% (2020). The death rates by poisoning decreased from 7.7% (2011) to 2.5% (2020).
Conclusion
Our findings underscore the urgent need for targeted interventions and suicide prevention policies. Managing and reducing suicide and self-harm in emergency settings will require a focus on poisoning, the 10–29 age group, and the elderly. This paper will be valuable for future policies aiming to reduce the societal burden of suicide and self-harm.
A retrospective analysis of toxic alcohol poisoning
Jin Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Tae Kyu Ahn, Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):143-150.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00014
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical features of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
Methods
This single-center retrospective observational study included patients with toxic alcohol poisoning who visited a regional emergency medical center. Patients with methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning from January 2004 to June 2023 were selected for the study using diagnostic codes.
Results
Twenty-two patients with toxic alcohol poisoning visited during the study period, with 11 patients for each category. Compared to methanol poisoning, ethylene glycol poisoning patients were more likely to have consumed alcohol for suicidal purposes (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=8 [72.73%]) and were more likely to be drowsy (n=0 vs. n=6 [54.55%], p=0.016). The anion gap (25.43±8.35 mmol/L vs. 13.22±6.23 mmol/L, p=0.001) and lactic acid levels (1.785 [1.3–2.785] mmol/L vs. 9.90 [4.20–11.81] mmol/L, p=0.007) were higher in ethylene glycol poisoning patients than in methanol poisoning patients. Among alcohol dehydrogenase blockers, oral ethanol was administered to 10 patients (45.45%) (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=6 [54.55%]), and intravenous ethanol was administered to six patients (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=2 [18.18%]). Fomepizole was administered to two patients (9.09%) each, and renal replacement therapy was non-significantly more common in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (n=8 [72.73%] vs. n=3 [27.27%], p=0.128). Three patients had delays in diagnosis and treatment, and while there were no fatalities, one patient was left with permanent vision damage.
Conclusion
Because these are uncommon types of poisoning and the clinical presentation is difficult to recognize early, healthcare providers should be familiar with toxic alcohol types and screen for them to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
2022 Annual Report of the Seoul Poison Control Center
Yo Han Shin, Sijin Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):39-55.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00006
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: The Korea University Anam Hospital Seoul Poison Control Center (SeoulPCC) was established in accordance with Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance No. 7524 “Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance on the Prevention of Toxic Substances Poisoning and Accident Safety.” Herein, the center’s annual performance in terms of project results and consultation information for 2022 are reported.
Methods
SeoulPCC operates a helpline (Help Call, 1855-2221) that the general public can use from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM on weekdays, as well as chatting and chatbot counseling through KakaoTalk’s “Seoul Poison Control Center,” and one-on-one online counseling through the website. Additionally, it has constructed a system for communicating with the general public through social media. Poisoning disease information collected from SeoulPCC from January to December 2022 was analyzed according to the number of requests, age of exposure, gender, location, and reason. Requests from the general public were summarized, and a brief image presenting information on poisoning disease-related consultations was produced.
Results
SeoulPCC has a database containing information on 188,065 toxic substances collected by public institutions and provides this information to the general public and medical staff through its website. In 2022, consultations were performed through phone calls and SNS (social networking service) for 577 cases of poison information and first aid treatment due to exposure to toxic substances. There were 1,431 instances of providing poison information services. The annual requests included 512 exposure cases and 65 non-exposure cases. Furthermore, 366 cases were in Seoul, 145 cases were outside of Seoul, and 66 had an unknown location. The exposure cases included 161 requests from the general public and 351 requests from medical staff.
Conclusion
This is the first annual report in Korea to analyze the occurrence of poisoning based on consultations. It is of major significance that this report serves as a starting point for identifying and tracking the aspects and characteristics of poisoning cases in the pre-hospital stage. In the future, poisoning-related disease information provided through consultations and at the emergency room should be linked, and through real-time collection and analysis, this information should be used as basic data for poisoning disease management policies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Patterns of self-harm/suicide attempters who visited emergency department over the past 10 years and changes in poisoning as a major method (2011–2020)
    Kyu Hyun Pai, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Juhyun Song, Sijin Lee, Ji Hwan Park, Jeijoon Song
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 69.     CrossRef
Continuous Control of Acetaminophen Poisoning after Implementation of Regulation for Ease Access of Acetaminophen: Cohort Study from Emergency Department Based in-depth Injury Surveillance
Seung Jik Jo, Hyun Young Gang, Si Jin Lee, Gyu Hyun Bae, Eui Jung Lee, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):57-65.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.57
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Purpose: Since 2012, acetaminophen can be accessed easily not only at pharmacies but also at convenience stores. The relationship between the easy access of acetaminophen and the risk of poisoning has been controversial. Several studies also reported different results regarding the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after access to acetaminophen was relaxed. This study examined the long-term effects on the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after easy access to acetaminophen was implemented. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of an emergency department (ED)-based in-depth Injury Surveillance Cohort by the Korea Center for Disease Control and prevention from 2011 to 2018. Poisoning cases were selected from the Cohort, and the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning and the characteristics of the cases of acetaminophen poisoning were analyzed. The purchase path and the amount of ingestion in acetaminophen poisoning were sub-analyzed from data of six EDs. Results: Of 57,326 poisoning cases, 4.0% (2,272 cases) were acetaminophen poisoning. Of 2,272 cases of acetaminophen poisoning, 42.8% (974 cases) required in-patient care after ED management. Two hundred and sixty-four of these 964 cases required intensive care. The rates of cases that required in-patient treatment and the rates of cases that required intensive care increased from 29.4% in 2011 to 48.1% in 2018, and from 3.1% in 2011 to 15.2% in 2018, respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001). In the poisoning group with in-depth toxic surveillance (n=15,908), the incidence and proportion of acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning increased from 55 cases per year to 187 cases per year and 4.9% to 6.1%, respectively (p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The most common age group of acetaminophen poisoning was teenagers, which is different from the most common age group of other pharmaceutical agents: the middle age group of 40-49 years (p<0.001). Of 15,908 in-depth toxic surveillance patients, 693 patients had AAP poisoning, of whom 377 cases (54.2%) purchased acetaminophen from a non-pharmacy. The proportions of the purchase path from non-pharmacy were 41.4% at 2011-12 and 56.4% (2013-18) (p=0.004). The amount of acetaminophen ingestion was 13.5±14.3 g at 2011-12 and 13.9±15.1 g at 2013-18 (p=0.794). Conclusion: Although the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning did not increase remarkably in the short term after the implementation of the new regulation, the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning has increased slightly during the study period of 2017-18. In addition, the proportion of the purchase path from non-pharmacies has increased since the emergence of new regulations for the easy access of acetaminophen in 2012. The incidence of acetaminophen poisoning might have been affected after the increasing accessibility of acetaminophen in convenience stores. Continuous control of acetaminophen poisoning is required. Furthermore, the prevention of acetaminophen poisoning should be focused on teenagers with specialized school education programs.

Citations

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  • Analysis of 2011-2020 intentional drug poisoning in children and adolescents
    Jin Seok Park, Jin Seong Cho, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jae Ho Jang, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jea Yeon Choi
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal.2023; 10(4): 132.     CrossRef
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Hospitalization of Patients Visited the Emergency Department after Deliberate Self-poisoning
Woo Sik Noh, Hye Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2020;18(2):102-109.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2020.18.2.102
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Purpose: This study examined factors associated with the hospitalization of patients who visited the emergency department (ED) after deliberate self-poisoning. Methods: The medical records of the patients, who visited the ED at a tertiary teaching hospital after deliberate self-poisoning between March 2017 and December 2019, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Fifty-seven in the hospitalization and 236 in the discharge group patients were included. The mean age in the hospitalization and discharge group was 48.8±20.4 and 41.8±19.1, respectively (p=0.020). Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in age (p=0.020), mental status (p<0.001), request for help (p=0.046), chronic disease (p=0.036), substance ingested (p<0.001), and risk rescue-rating scale (p<0.001) between the two groups (hospitalization group and discharge group). In multiple logistic regression analysis for predicting the hospitalization of patients after deliberate self-poisoning, the Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS) was identified (OR=1.493, 95% confidential interval=1.330-1.675, p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristics analysis of RRRS for the decision to hospitalize showed a cut-off value of 38.9, with a sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 96.4%, 77.0%, and 0.949, respectively. Conclusion: The RRRS can be used to determine the hospitalization for patients who visited the ED after deliberate self-poisoning. Nevertheless, multicenter prospective studies will be needed to determine the generalisability of these results.
Self-poisoning as a Target Group for Prevention of Suicide
Moon Hwan Kwak, Hyun Young Kang, Si Jin Lee, Kap Su Han, Su Jin Kim, Eu Jung Lee, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):93-101.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.93
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Purpose: The Korean government has tried to decrease the suicide death rate over the last decade. Suicide attempts, particularly non-fatal attempts, are the most powerful known risk factor for a completed suicide. An analysis of suicide attempt methods will help establish the effective preventive action of suicide. Fit prevention according to the method of suicide attempt may decrease the incidence of suicide death. Self-poisoning is suggested as a major method of both suicide attempts and suicide death. The aim of this study was to determine if a self-poisoning patient is a suitable target for the prevention of the suicide. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort, which included patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a self-harm or suicide attempt from Jan 2013 to Dec 2017. The proportion of methods in suicide attempts, psychological consultation, and fatality according to the suicide attempt method were analyzed. The types of poison were also analyzed. Results: Poisoning was the most common method of suicide attempts (52.1%). The rate of psychological consultations were 18.8% for all patients and 29.1% for poison patients (p<0.001). The rate of mortality in poisoning was 0.6%. Psychological consultation was performed more frequently in admission cases than discharged cases. The most common materials of poisons was psychological medicines and sedatives that had been prescribed at clinics or hospital. Conclusion: Self-poisoning is a major method of suicide attempt with a high rate of psychiatric consultation, low mortality rate, versus others methods. The prevention of suicide death for suicide attempts may focus on self-poisoning, which is the major method of suicide attempts. A suitable aftercare program for self-poisoning may be an effective method for preventing suicide if an early diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders through psychiatric consultation can be made, and early connection to social prevention program for non-fatal patients are possible.
Extracorporeal Life Support in Acute Poisoning
Si Jin Lee, Gap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee, Do Hyun Kim, Kyoung Yae Park, Ji Young Lee, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):86-92.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.86
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Purpose: Cardiovascular or respiratory complications of acute intoxication are the most common causes of mortality. Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) or specific antidotes help manage these cardiac or respiratory complications in acute intoxication. On the other hand, some cases do not respond to ACLS or antidotes and they require some special treatment, such as extracorporeal life support (ECLS). ECLS will provide the chance of recovery from acute intoxication. This study examined the optimal timing of ECLS in acute intoxication cases. Methods: This paper is a brief report of a case series about ECLS in acute poisoning. The cases of ECLS were reviewed and the effects of ECLS on the blood pressure and serum lactate level of the patients were analyzed. Results: A total of four cases were reviewed; three of them were antihypertensive agent-induced shock, and one was respiratory failure after the inhalation of acid. The time range of ECLS application was 4.8-23.5 hours after toxic exposure. The causes of ECLS implementation were one for recurrent cardiac arrest, two for shock that did not respond to ACLS, and one for respiratory failure that did not respond to mechanical ventilator support. Three patients showed an improvement in blood pressure and serum lactate level and were discharged alive. In case 1, ECLS was stared at 23.5 hours post toxic exposure; the patient died due to refractory shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion: The specific management of ECLS should be considered when a patient with acute intoxication does not recovery from shock or respiratory failure despite ACLS, antidote therapies, or mechanical ventilator support. ECLS improved the hemodynamic and ventilator condition in complicated poisoned patients. The early application of ECLS may improve the tissue perfusion state and outcomes of these patients before the toxic damage becomes irreversible.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio as A Predictor of Aspiration Pneumonia in Drug Intoxication Patients
Jeong Beom Lee, Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seung Woon Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyung Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho, Beom Sok Seo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(2):61-67.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.2.61
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Purpose: To evaluate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in drug intoxication (DI) patients in the emergency department (ED) and to evaluate the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission/intensive care unit (ICU) admission Methods: A total of 466 patients diagnosed with DI in the ED from January 2016 to December 2017 were included in the analysis. The clinical and laboratory results, including NLR, were evaluated as variables. NLR was calculated as the absolute neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count. To evaluate the prognosis of DI, data on the development of aspiration pneumonia were obtained. Also, we evaluated the relationship between NLR and length of hospital admission and between NLR and length of ICU admission. Statistically, multivariate logistic regression analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson's correlation (${ ho}$) were performed. Results: Among the 466 DI patients, 86 (18.5%) developed aspiration pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed NLR as an independent factor in predicting aspiration pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.7; p=0.001). NLR showed excellent predictive performance for aspiration pneumonia (areas under the ROC curves, 0.815; cut-off value, 3.47; p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 72.6%. No correlations between NLR and length of hospital admission (${ ho}=0.195$) and between NLR and length of ICU admission (${ ho}=0.092$) were observed. Conclusion: The NLR is a simple and effective marker for predicting the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in DI patients. Emergency physicians should be alert for aspiration pneumonia in DI patients with high NLR value (>3.47).
Changes in Toxicological Characteristics after Sales of Nonprescription Drugs in Convenience Stores
Chang Yeong Kim, Eui Jung Lee, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2018;16(1):42-48.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2018.16.1.42
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Purpose: On November 15, 2012, sales of OTC (Over-The-Counter) drugs began at convenience stores, which changed the accessibility of some drugs. As a result, the exposure and access patterns of these drugs could have changed. In this study, we reviewed the changes in the characteristics of drug poisoning patients because of the reposition of nonprescription drugs according to the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate changes in characteristics of drug poisoning patients between 2008 and 2016. A registry was developed by an emergency medical center in a local tertiary teaching hospital, and patients who visited the center were enrolled in this registry. We compared two periods, from 2008 to 2012 (Pre OTC) and from 2013 to 2016 (Post OTC), for type of intoxicant, time from poisoning to visiting the emergency center, intention, psychiatric history, previous suicidal attempt, alcohol status, and emergency room outcomes. The primary outcome was the number of patients who took acetaminophen and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Secondary outcomes were ICU admission rate, mortality rate, and number of patients who visited the ER when the pharmacy was closed after taking acetaminophen and NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Results: Among 1,564 patients, 945 and 619 patients visited the emergency room during pre and post OTC periods. The number of patients with acetaminophen and NSAIDs poisoning decreased from 9.2% to 6.1% (p=0.016). The ICU admission rate and mortality rate in the emergency room did not show significant results in the relevant patient groups, and so was the number of patients visiting ER when the pharmacy was closed taking acetaminophen and NSAIDs. Conclusion: Despite the sales of nonprescription drugs at convenience stores, the number of acetaminophen and NSAIDs poisoning patients decreased.
A Case of a Herbicide Poisoning Induced Methemoglobinemia Patient Treated with High-dose Vitamin C
Kyung Hoon Sun, Jun Kew Kim, Chang Yeon Ryu, Seo Jin Kim, Hyeon Kyu Jo, Tae Ho Yoo, Yong Jin Park, Sun pyo Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):148-151.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.148
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Methemoglobinemia is a condition in which the iron portion of hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen, is oxidized to produce methemoglobin, which increases blood concentration. There are many causes of methemoglobinemia, the most common being food, drugs, and chemicals. A 75-year-old male patient who had taken an herbicide did not notice any nonspecific symptoms. However, after 4 hours, his methemoglobin levels increased to 17.1%, while after 7 hours it increased to 26.5%, at which time intravenous administration of methylene blue 1 mg/kg (an antidote) was started. After a total of five doses of methylene blue at 1 mg/kg due to reactive methemoglobinemia for about 36 hours, the methemoglobin levels increased to 23.7%. Because no more methylene blue could be administered, 10 g of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was administered intravenously. After 82 hours, ascorbic acid 10 g was administered six times for repeated reactive methemoglobinemia. No additional reactive methemoglobinemia was observed. The ventilator and endotracheal tube were successfully removed on day 5 after admission.
Changes of Poison Data Characteristics Collected from Telephone Response in 1339 and 119: Discrepancy in Characteristics of Post-toxin Exposure Data Obtained through Telephone Counselling Provided by 1339 and 119
Kwang Hoon Park, Jong Su Park, Sung-Woo Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Eui Jung Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):116-121.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.116
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the toxicologic profiles and outcome of poisoned patients by comparing the data obtained through telephone counselling, each provided by emergency medical information center (1339) and emergency dispatch center (119). Methods: We analyzed the telephone-based poison exposure data before and after Seoul 1339 merged to 119. We compared the Seoul 1339 call response data in 2008 with Seoul and Busan 119 call response data between 2014 and 2016. We analyzed the changes in the trend and quality of data obtained, as well as the quality of service provided by each center before and after this reallocation, by comparing the data each obtained through telephone counselling. Results: The data was collected for a total of 2260 toxin exposure related calls made to Seoul 1339 in 2009, and 1657 calls to 119 in Seoul and Busan between 2014 and 2016. Significant difference was observed for age, sex, and reason for exposure to toxic substance between the two groups. Conclusion: After the integration of 1339 with 119, 119 focused on role of field dispatch and hospital transfer, lacking the consulting on drug poisoning. Moreover, data on exposure to toxic substances at the pre-hospital stage indicate that drug information and counseling are missing or unknown. In addition, first aid or follow-up instructions are not provided. Thus, systematic approach and management are required.
Contributing Factors for the Registration Rates within Emergency Department Based Post-suicidal Care Program
Dong-Ki Kim, Byeong Jo Chun, Jong Mi Moon, Yong Soo Cho, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Hyun Jung Kim, Mi Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):54-59.   Published online June 30, 2016
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Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the independent factors associated with the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2015 at the academic ED in the tertiary urban hospital. The variables examined included gender, age, address, type of insurance, history of previous psychiatric disease, suicide methods, number of previous attempts, CES-D (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and disposition at ED. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify factors affecting the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program. Results: Overall, 331 suicides were investigated, 61 (18.4%) of which were registered in the post-suicide care program. Factors such as a intervention by psychiatric physician (OR: 3.287, 95%; CI: 1.207-9.624) and levels of depression by CES-D score of 16-24 (OR: 3.635; CI: 1.055-12.526) were significantly correlated with registration for the program. Conclusion: The registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program was influenced by frequent intervention by a psychiatric physician and levels of depression by CES-D score of 16-24.
Administration and Efficiency Comparison of Chloral Hydrate during Pediatric Sedation
Jung Ah Bae, Yoon Hee Choi, Ah Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2016;14(1):9-15.   Published online June 30, 2016
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Purpose: In most emergency department (ED), sedation is required before carrying out an invasive procedure on a pediatric patient. In the ED setting, it is essential to determine the optimal dose and administration route of CH for successful sedation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dose of CH for an invasive procedure and to examine the effectiveness of the drug's different administration routes. Furthermore, in this study, we performed simple survey using questionnaire which composed of Likert-scale to evaluate satisfaction of medical staffs in ED with administration routes. Methods: This study was conducted prospectively. The study participants were pediatric patients under 8 years old who visited the ED in two tertiary hospitals in South Korea within a period of 12 months. Results: Overall, 300 patients were included in this study. The age, sex, and weight of the patients were not shown to influence the sedation time. Chloral hydrate dosage is the independent factor to influence the both sedation and discharge time (p<0.01). In the comparison of the groups, groups 1, 2, and 5 showed no significant difference. On the other hand, groups 3 and 4 were shown to be statistically significantly different from group 1. Conclusion: Up to 100 mg/kg CH is safe to use in the emergency department for pediatric patients, but the initial dose of 50 mg/kg for oral administration should be considered in advance because it can provide safe and effective sedation with a lower possibility of causing an adverse effect.
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis by Initial Endoscopic Severity in Caustic Injury
Sang Min Lee, Woo Ik Choi, Sung Jin Kim, Sang Chan Jin
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(2):87-94.   Published online December 31, 2015
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Purpose: We investigated comparison of clinical characteristics and prognosis by initial endoscopic severity in caustic injury and then discussed predisposing factors which can be helpful in predicting the prognosis and determining the treatment. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of medical records from patients over the age of 15, who underwent initial endoscopy for caustic injury from April 2007 through November 2014. Patients were classified according to two groups based on the initial endoscopic finding by Zargar's classification: patients with grade 0, I, IIa at esophagus (low risk group) and patients with grade IIb, IIIa, IIIb at esophagus (high risk group). The two groups were then compared. Results: A total of 55 patients were included (low risk group [n=44] vs. high risk group [n=11]). Old age (p<0.001), large amount of ingestion (p<0.05), oropharyngeal symptoms (p<0.01), high SOFA score (p<0.001), high WBC count (p<0.05), low base excess (p<0.01), and HCO3 (p<0.05) were statistically significant factors in the high risk group. A poor prognosis was observed for hospital stay (p<0.001), ICU admission (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.01), and stricture (p<0.001) in the high risk group. Conclusion: Clinical characteristics including age, amount of ingestion, oropharyngeal symptoms, SOFA score, WBC count, base excess, and $HCO_3$ can be helpful in the decision to undergo initial endoscopy and risk assessment by initial endoscopic severity can be helpful in predicting prognosis and determining the treatment plan.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology