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Original Article
A retrospective analysis of toxic alcohol poisoning
Jin Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Tae Kyu Ahn, Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):143-150.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00014
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical features of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
Methods
This single-center retrospective observational study included patients with toxic alcohol poisoning who visited a regional emergency medical center. Patients with methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning from January 2004 to June 2023 were selected for the study using diagnostic codes.
Results
Twenty-two patients with toxic alcohol poisoning visited during the study period, with 11 patients for each category. Compared to methanol poisoning, ethylene glycol poisoning patients were more likely to have consumed alcohol for suicidal purposes (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=8 [72.73%]) and were more likely to be drowsy (n=0 vs. n=6 [54.55%], p=0.016). The anion gap (25.43±8.35 mmol/L vs. 13.22±6.23 mmol/L, p=0.001) and lactic acid levels (1.785 [1.3–2.785] mmol/L vs. 9.90 [4.20–11.81] mmol/L, p=0.007) were higher in ethylene glycol poisoning patients than in methanol poisoning patients. Among alcohol dehydrogenase blockers, oral ethanol was administered to 10 patients (45.45%) (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=6 [54.55%]), and intravenous ethanol was administered to six patients (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=2 [18.18%]). Fomepizole was administered to two patients (9.09%) each, and renal replacement therapy was non-significantly more common in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (n=8 [72.73%] vs. n=3 [27.27%], p=0.128). Three patients had delays in diagnosis and treatment, and while there were no fatalities, one patient was left with permanent vision damage.
Conclusion
Because these are uncommon types of poisoning and the clinical presentation is difficult to recognize early, healthcare providers should be familiar with toxic alcohol types and screen for them to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
Comparison of Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) according to alcohol co-ingestion in intentional poisoning patients
Min jae Jun, Tae kyu Ahn, Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(1):17-23.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.1.17
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Alcohol ingestion enhances impulsivity and aggression, and has been proven to have a close relationship with suicide. This study investigates whether alcohol co-ingestion affects the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) grade in patients with intentional poisoning. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of intentional poisoning patients who visited the emergency department (ED) from January 1 to December 31, 2020. Patients were divided into non-drunken and drunken groups. We collected the data based on the medical records of the patients and serum ethanol level results recorded during initial blood tests at the ED. To grade the PSS, the highest score was assessed through clinical signs and test results during the hospital stay. A comparative analysis was conducted between the two groups. Results: A total of 277 patients were included in the study. 163 (58.8%) were in the non-drunken group, and 114 (41.2%) were in the drunken group. The PSS grade showed a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.002). While grade 1 (mild) was observed more in the non-drunken group, grade 2 (moderate) and grade 3 (severe) were seen more in the drunken group. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis, alcohol co-ingestion (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.557, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.554-4.208, p<0.001) was considered to be a risk factor for a higher PSS grade. There was no significant correlation between the serum ethanol level and the PSS grade. (p=0.568) Conclusion: Intentional poisoning patients with alcohol co-ingestion had a higher PSS. Hence close observation and aggressive treatment in the ED is warranted in such cases.
A Case of Chlorfluazuron Insectisides Poisoning with Mental Change
Eun Suk Park, Soo Kang, Ah Jin Kim, Jin Hue Baek, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):40-42.   Published online June 30, 2015
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Benzoylureas are chemical compounds best known for their use as insecticides. Diflubenzuron is one of the more commonly used benzoylurea pesticides. Others include chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, and triflumuron. They act as insect growth regulators by inhibiting synthesis of chitin in the body of the insect. They have low toxicity in mammals because mammals have no chitin. Chlorfluazuron insecticides, which are mixed with solvent naphatha, are commonly used. Thus we assume that in the presented case mental change outcome of poisoning was connected with toxic effects of solvent naphtha rather than with chlorfluazuron action. Components of solvent naphtha, particularly trimethylbenzenes, exert strong irritant action on the gastric mucosa and are very well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. We report on a 67-year-old man with stuporous mentality after intentional ingestion of approximately 200 ml of liquid chlorfluazuron in a suicide attempt. He was discharged after conservative treatments including gastric irrigation, charcoal, mechanical ventilation, hydration, and antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia without complications.
Clinical Observation of Paraquat Poisoning
Kyung-Hong Jun, Myung-Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2009;7(1):1-9.   Published online June 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Paraquat, a globally used herbicide, is highly toxic to human beings. Hence, we reviewed some cases of paraquat poisoning in Korea. Methods: We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of 50 patients poisoned with paraquat retrospectively. The patients were admitted to the department of internal medicine in the Eumseong KeumWang hospital from January 2008 to December 2008. Results: Among 50 cases of paraquat poisoning, 28 cases were male. Twenty-four cases (48%) were over 60 years old. Fourty-nine patients ingested paraquat on purpose as suicidal attempts, while 1 patient underwent accidental ingestion. Seven patients swallowed less than one mouthful of paraquat, of which 4 patients survived. Eleven patients swallowed two mouthfuls of paraquat, of which 8 patients survived. Thirty-two patients swallowed over three mouthfuls of paraquat and they all died. Thirty-one patients with leukocytosis died. Twenty-one patients with metabolic acidosis died. Increased levels of blood amylase and glucose were related to high mortality, and increased level of blood creatinine was related to severe mortality. Hemoperfusions were accomplished in 27 patients of paraquat poisoning, of which 12 patients survived. Conclusion: Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide. When patients arrive at the hospital, laboratory findings, urine paraquat concentrations, arrival time, and the amount of paraquat consumed must be considered for treatment plan.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology