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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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5 "Diagnosis"
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Original Article
A retrospective analysis of toxic alcohol poisoning
Jin Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Tae Kyu Ahn, Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):143-150.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00014
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical features of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
Methods
This single-center retrospective observational study included patients with toxic alcohol poisoning who visited a regional emergency medical center. Patients with methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning from January 2004 to June 2023 were selected for the study using diagnostic codes.
Results
Twenty-two patients with toxic alcohol poisoning visited during the study period, with 11 patients for each category. Compared to methanol poisoning, ethylene glycol poisoning patients were more likely to have consumed alcohol for suicidal purposes (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=8 [72.73%]) and were more likely to be drowsy (n=0 vs. n=6 [54.55%], p=0.016). The anion gap (25.43±8.35 mmol/L vs. 13.22±6.23 mmol/L, p=0.001) and lactic acid levels (1.785 [1.3–2.785] mmol/L vs. 9.90 [4.20–11.81] mmol/L, p=0.007) were higher in ethylene glycol poisoning patients than in methanol poisoning patients. Among alcohol dehydrogenase blockers, oral ethanol was administered to 10 patients (45.45%) (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=6 [54.55%]), and intravenous ethanol was administered to six patients (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=2 [18.18%]). Fomepizole was administered to two patients (9.09%) each, and renal replacement therapy was non-significantly more common in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (n=8 [72.73%] vs. n=3 [27.27%], p=0.128). Three patients had delays in diagnosis and treatment, and while there were no fatalities, one patient was left with permanent vision damage.
Conclusion
Because these are uncommon types of poisoning and the clinical presentation is difficult to recognize early, healthcare providers should be familiar with toxic alcohol types and screen for them to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
Comparison of medical history based diagnosis and urine test using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in drug overdose
Ja-Young Lee, Kyungman Cha, Won Jung Jeong, Hyung Min Kim, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In patients with acute drug overdose, identification of drugs ingested is crucial to make a precise diagnosis. In most cases, the diagnoses are made on the medical history and physical examination findings. This study was undertaken to determine the concordance of diagnosis made on the basis of patient history by comparing it with urine toxicology analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of drug intoxicated patients over 18 years old who presented to the emergency center from 2017 to 2019. Specimens from urine were tested using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). The test results were compared with information obtained from patients. Diagnostic concordances for drug detection in intoxicated patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy. Results: Totally, 370 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 66 types of drugs were detected by UPLC-TMS. The drugs detected most frequently were zolpidem (104, 27.8%), citalopram (70, 18.7%), and paracetamol (66, 17.6%). The mean diagnostic concordance of patients was 52.7%. There were statistically significant diagnostic discrepancies in patients with underlying depression and patients intoxicated with multiple types of drugs. Conclusion: In ED patients with acute drug overdose, the diagnoses made on history alone were often inaccurate. It is essential to perform urine toxicology tests such as UPLC-TMS as a confirmatory instrument to improve accuracy in evaluating patients with drug intoxication.
Is it Adequate to Determine Acetaminophen Toxicity Solely on Patients' History? An Analysis on Clinical Manifestation of Intoxication Patients with Positive Serum Acetaminophen Concentrations
Jee Hyun Kim, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yong Chul Cho, Jang Hyuck Moon, Hyun Soo Choi, Song Hee Yang, Hee Sun Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2017;15(2):94-100.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2017.15.2.94
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute acetaminophen intoxication is a common occurrence that can cause lethal complications. In most domestic emergency departments, clinicians tend to treat acetaminophen intoxication based on patients' history alone, simply due to the lack of a rapid acetaminophen laboratory test. We performed a 20-month study of intoxication patients to determine the correlation between the history of patients and serum laboratory tests for acetaminophen. Methods: We took blood samples from 280 intoxication patients to evaluate whether laboratory findings detected traces of acetaminophen in the sample. Patients were then treated according to their history. Laboratory results came out after patients' discharge. Agreement between patients' history and laboratory results were analyzed. Results: Among the 280 intoxicated patients enrolled, 38 patients had positive serum acetaminophen concentrations; 18 out of 38 patients did not represent a history suggesting acetaminophen intoxication. One patient without the history showed toxic serum acetaminophen concentration. Among the patients with the history, two patients with toxic serum acetaminophen concentration did not receive N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment due to their low reported doses, while other 2 patients without significant serum acetaminophen concentration did receive NAC treatment due to their high reported doses. Conclusion: This study showed a good overall agreement between history and laboratory test results. However, some cases showed inconsistencies between their history and laboratory test results. Therefore, in treating intoxication patients, a laboratory test of acetaminophen with rapid results should be available in most domestic emergency departments.
Two Cases of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning
Jae Jin Kim, Sung Hyun Yun, Hyun Min Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Jun Sig Kim, Jin Hui Paik
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2013;11(1):36-40.   Published online June 30, 2013
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ethylene glycol poisoning is treated mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition therapy and hemodialysis. Early recognition and initiation of treatment is important because toxic metabolites increase over time by hepatic metabolism; however, there is no confirmative diagnostic tool in our clinical setting. Therefore, diagnosis is dependent on history, high anion gap acidosis, high osmolal gap, etc.. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed in cases where history taking is not possible, such as a mental changed patient. Authors report on two cases of ethylene glycol poisoning by contrasting clinical outcomes, demonstrating the importance of early diagnosis and treatment for achievement of a good outcome.
Analysis of Patients with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in one Hospital
Kyung Hwan Kim, Ah Jin Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Jun Young Rho
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2005;3(1):27-32.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The frequency of carbon monoxide poisoning has been decreased in the interior of the Korea. But occasionally it is occurred and the risk of exposure is high in working place so far. Because of the characteristics of gas, the detection of exposure and poisoning could be delayed and fatality is high. We should apprehend of carbon monoxide poisoning. So we would report analysis of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: A retrospective review of CO poisoned patients visited emergency department from January 2000 to December 2004 was conducted. Results: 24 patients were enrolled. Their average of age was $37.6pm20.9$ years old and COHb was $19.4pm13.32\%$. The blood level of initial COHb and mental status on arrival were not correlated each other. The blood level of initial COHb and loss of consciousness were not correlated, too. Initial electrocardiography (EKG) was not correlated with cardiac enzymes such as CK-MB and troponin I. But base excess was correlated with mental status on arrival and complication such as rhabdomyolysis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was correlated with base excess and mental status on arrival. Conclusion: The clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning are nonspecific. For proper diagnosis, it is important that we should consider patient's environment and take patient's history carefully. The blood level of initial COHb does not reflect severity of poisoning accurately. So We should determine the treatment of choice depending on patient's status.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology