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A retrospective analysis of toxic alcohol poisoning
Jin Kim, Yu Jin Lee, Tae Kyu Ahn, Soo Kang
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):143-150.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00014
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical features of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
Methods
This single-center retrospective observational study included patients with toxic alcohol poisoning who visited a regional emergency medical center. Patients with methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning from January 2004 to June 2023 were selected for the study using diagnostic codes.
Results
Twenty-two patients with toxic alcohol poisoning visited during the study period, with 11 patients for each category. Compared to methanol poisoning, ethylene glycol poisoning patients were more likely to have consumed alcohol for suicidal purposes (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=8 [72.73%]) and were more likely to be drowsy (n=0 vs. n=6 [54.55%], p=0.016). The anion gap (25.43±8.35 mmol/L vs. 13.22±6.23 mmol/L, p=0.001) and lactic acid levels (1.785 [1.3–2.785] mmol/L vs. 9.90 [4.20–11.81] mmol/L, p=0.007) were higher in ethylene glycol poisoning patients than in methanol poisoning patients. Among alcohol dehydrogenase blockers, oral ethanol was administered to 10 patients (45.45%) (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=6 [54.55%]), and intravenous ethanol was administered to six patients (n=4 [36.36%] vs. n=2 [18.18%]). Fomepizole was administered to two patients (9.09%) each, and renal replacement therapy was non-significantly more common in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (n=8 [72.73%] vs. n=3 [27.27%], p=0.128). Three patients had delays in diagnosis and treatment, and while there were no fatalities, one patient was left with permanent vision damage.
Conclusion
Because these are uncommon types of poisoning and the clinical presentation is difficult to recognize early, healthcare providers should be familiar with toxic alcohol types and screen for them to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.
Comparison of hyperbaric oxygen therapy pressures for acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Jeong Yun Kim, Jihye Lim, Sung Hwa Kim, Sang Il Han, Yong Sung Cha
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):117-127.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00012
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: No consensus currently exists regarding the maximal pressure of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy performed within 24 hours of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in therapeutic effects according to the first HBO2 pressure (3.0 atmospheres absolute [ATA] vs. 2.8 ATA).
Methods
We used prospectively collected registry data on CO poisoning at a tertiary academic hospital in the Republic of Korea. Adult patients with acute CO poisoning treated with HBO2 within 24 hours after arrival at the emergency department and without the use of additional HBO2 after 24 hours between January 2007 and February 2022 were included. Data from 595 patients were analyzed using propensity score matching (PSM). Patients with mild (non-intubated) and severe (intubated) poisoning were also compared. Neurocognitive outcomes at 1 month after CO poisoning were evaluated using the Global Deterioration Scale combined with neurological impairment.
Results
After PSM, the neurocognitive outcomes at 1-month post-CO exposure were not significantly different between the 2.8 ATA (110 patients) and 3.0 ATA (55 patients) groups (p=1.000). Similarly, there was also no significant difference in outcomes in a subgroup analysis according to poisoning severity in matched patients (165 patients) (mild [non-intubated]: p=0.053; severe [intubated]: p=1.000).
Conclusion
Neurocognitive sequelae at 1 month were not significantly different between HBO2 therapy pressures of 2.8 ATA and 3.0 ATA in patients with acute CO poisoning. In addition, the 1-month neurocognitive sequelae did not differ significantly between intubated and non-intubated patients.
Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(2):108-116.   Published online December 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigated the differences between patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning who visited the emergency department (ED) before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Methods
This was a single-center retrospective observational study. Patients with CO poisoning who visited the ED during the period from February 2020 to January 2023 were classified as the COVID-19 pandemic group, and those from February 2019 to January 2020 were classified as the non-pandemic group. Patients’ medical records were reviewed, their demographic and clinical characteristics were compared, and the length of stay in ED was checked. The time from admission to the ED to the start of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) was defined as the door-to-HBO time, and this parameter was compared between both groups.
Results
In total, 672 patients were included in this study. The proportion of intentional poisoning was significantly higher in the COVID-19 pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (p=0.028). The proportion of intentional poisoning significantly increased in the 20- to 29-year-old age group during the COVID-19 pandemic (p<0.001). In addition, it took longer to initiate HBO in the COVID-19 pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (p=0.001).
Conclusion
These findings suggest that pandemics of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, increase the proportion of intentional CO poisoning, and it may take longer to initiate HBO after visiting the ED. Efforts will be needed to decrease intentional CO poisoning and length of stay in ED.
Poisoning patients’ clinical features according to the blood level of propranolol
Sungheon Kim, Byung Hak So, Hyung Min Kim, Kyeong Man Cha, Hwan Song, Won Jung Jeong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):56-63.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00010
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Propranolol is widely prescribed to psychiatric patients to control adrenergic symptoms. However, propranolol poisoning can be fatal due to cardiovascular complications. We analyzed associations between blood levels of propranolol and patients’ clinical features, with the aim of predicting progression to severe complications.
Methods
Data were collected from patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the emergency department with propranolol poisoning between January 2016 and May 2022. We retrospectively analyzed their medical records and compared blood levels of propranolol between those who had cardiovascular complications and those who did not.
Results
Two hundred patients were included in this study. The blood levels of propranolol were significantly higher in patients with hypotension, bradycardia, and prolonged QT intervals, with median values of 247.0 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 56.5–333.8 ng/mL), 275.8 ng/mL (IQR, 154.3–486.4 ng/mL), and 159.0 ng/mL (IQR, 33.9–310.8 ng/mL), respectively. In the predictive analysis of cardiovascular complications using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve was 0.729 with a cut-off value of 72.40 ng/mL (sensitivity, 0.667; specificity, 0.819). In addition, the correlation coefficient between blood levels and the amount of drug described during the history-taking at the time of presentation was 0.634, which was found to have a significantly higher relationship.
Conclusion
Because blood levels of propranolol can be used as predictors of exacerbation in patients with propranolol poisoning, patients with blood levels above 72.40 ng/dL require careful treatment and observation from their initial presentation at the emergency department.
The 2022 Annual Report on Toxicology Surveillance and Severe Poisoning Cases at Emergency Departments in Korea
Eun Sun Lee, Su Jin Kim, Gyu Chong Cho, Mi Jin Lee, Byung Hak So, Kyung Su Kim, Juhyun Song, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00007
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning.
Methods
The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed.
Results
The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above.
Conclusion
This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.
2022 Annual Report of the Seoul Poison Control Center
Yo Han Shin, Sijin Lee, Su Jin Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):39-55.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00006
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose: The Korea University Anam Hospital Seoul Poison Control Center (SeoulPCC) was established in accordance with Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance No. 7524 “Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance on the Prevention of Toxic Substances Poisoning and Accident Safety.” Herein, the center’s annual performance in terms of project results and consultation information for 2022 are reported.
Methods
SeoulPCC operates a helpline (Help Call, 1855-2221) that the general public can use from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM on weekdays, as well as chatting and chatbot counseling through KakaoTalk’s “Seoul Poison Control Center,” and one-on-one online counseling through the website. Additionally, it has constructed a system for communicating with the general public through social media. Poisoning disease information collected from SeoulPCC from January to December 2022 was analyzed according to the number of requests, age of exposure, gender, location, and reason. Requests from the general public were summarized, and a brief image presenting information on poisoning disease-related consultations was produced.
Results
SeoulPCC has a database containing information on 188,065 toxic substances collected by public institutions and provides this information to the general public and medical staff through its website. In 2022, consultations were performed through phone calls and SNS (social networking service) for 577 cases of poison information and first aid treatment due to exposure to toxic substances. There were 1,431 instances of providing poison information services. The annual requests included 512 exposure cases and 65 non-exposure cases. Furthermore, 366 cases were in Seoul, 145 cases were outside of Seoul, and 66 had an unknown location. The exposure cases included 161 requests from the general public and 351 requests from medical staff.
Conclusion
This is the first annual report in Korea to analyze the occurrence of poisoning based on consultations. It is of major significance that this report serves as a starting point for identifying and tracking the aspects and characteristics of poisoning cases in the pre-hospital stage. In the future, poisoning-related disease information provided through consultations and at the emergency room should be linked, and through real-time collection and analysis, this information should be used as basic data for poisoning disease management policies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Patterns of self-harm/suicide attempters who visited emergency department over the past 10 years and changes in poisoning as a major method (2011–2020)
    Kyu Hyun Pai, Sung Woo Lee, Su Jin Kim, Kap Su Han, Juhyun Song, Sijin Lee, Ji Hwan Park, Jeijoon Song
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 69.     CrossRef
Changes in deoxyhemoglobin and admission duration in carbon monoxide poisoning patients: a retrospective study
Jae Gu Ji, Yang Weon Kim, Chul Ho Park, Yoo Sang Yoon, Yundeok Jang, JI-Hun Kang, Chang Min Park, Sang Hyeon Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):32-38.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2023.00004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deoxyhemoglobin changes were associated with admission duration in carbon monoxide (CO)-poisoned patients.
Methods
This retrospective study included 181 patients who were able to breathe by themselves after CO poisoning. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed to measure their deoxyhemoglobin levels. Their baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes during hospitalization in the emergency department (ED) were collected and compared. To assess changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels, blood samples were taken immediately after patients presented to the ED and then again after 6 hours. For statistical analysis, logistic regression was utilized to determine the effect of deoxyhemoglobin changes on admission duration.
Results
The incidence rates of hypocapnia and hypoxemia at presentation after acute CO poisoning were 28.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Moreover, the magnitude of increasing deoxyhemoglobin levels in patients with hypoxemia (2.1 [1.7–3.1], p<0.001) and changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels appeared to have an impact on the length of hospitalization in the ED (odds ratio, 1.722; 95% confidence interval, 0.547–0.952; p<0.001).
Conclusion
In patients with acute CO poisoning, deoxyhemoglobin levels appeared to increase in those with hypoxemia, which in turn was associated with prolonged hospitalization.
Status and trends of medical expenditures for poisoning patients
Eung Nam Kim, Soyoung Jeon, Hye Sun Lee, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2023;21(1):24-31.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.00017
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the medical expenditures for poisoning patients in Korea using data from National Health Insurance and the Korea Health Panel Survey.
Methods
The operational definition of poisoning was the presence of Korean Standard Classification of Diseases codes from T36 to T65. The number of poisoning patients, the amount of legal copayments, and benefit and non-benefit costs were extracted from both databases. The frequency of emergency, inpatient, and outpatient treatment utilization by poisoning patients was determined, and medical expenses were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate factors affecting the medical expenses of poisoning patients.
Results
The number of poisoning patients increased from 97,965 in 2011 to 147,984 persons in 2020. Medical expenses also increased by 74% from Korean won (KRW) 30.1 billion to KRW 52.3 billion, and benefit costs also increased by 79%. The average outpatient cost per person was KRW 67,660, and the inpatient cost was KRW 1,485,103. The average non-benefit medical expenses were KRW 80,298, accounting for about 16.2% of the total expenses. Multivariable analysis showed that the total expenditure was associated with economic status and disabilities.
Conclusion
The average medical expenditure per poisoning patient was KRW 534,302 in 2020, and poisoning-related costs gradually increased during the study period. Further research on the economic burden of poisoning should include indirect costs and reflect disease-adjusted life years.
Characteristics of poisoning patients visiting emergency departments before and after the COVID-19 pandemic
Jae Kee Seung, Cho Yongil, Kang Hyunggoo, Ho Lim Tae, Oh Jaehoon, Sung Ko Byuk, Lee Juncheol
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):66-74.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.66
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: This study investigates the characteristics and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments before and after the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Methods: This nationwide retrospective observational study included acute poisoning patients who visited the emergency departments between February 1 to December 31, 2020, which has been determined as the pandemic period. The same periods in 2018 and 2019 were designated as the control periods. The primary outcome assessed was the length of stay in emergency departments (EDLOS). The secondary outcomes examined were intensive care unit admission rate and in-hospital mortality rate before and after the pandemic. A subgroup analysis was performed for inpatients and intentional poisoning patients. Results: A total of 163,560 patients were included in the study. During the pandemic, the proportion of women increased from 50.0% in 2018 and 50.3% in 2019 to 52.5% in 2020. Patients aged 20-29 years increased from 13.4% in 2018 and 13.9% in 2019 to 16.6% in 2020. A rise in cases of intentional poisoning was also noted - from 33.9% in 2018 and 34.0% in 2019 to 38.4% in 2020. Evaluating the hospitalized poisoned patients revealed that the EDLOS increased from 3.8 hours in 2018 and 3.7 hours in 2019 to 4.2 hours in 2020. ICU admissions were also markedly increased (2018, 48.2%; 2019, 51.8%; 2020, 53.2%) among hospitalized patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of acute poisoning patients visiting nationwide emergency departments in Korea. The proportion of young adults, women, and intentional poisoning patients has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic. Prolonged length of stay at the emergency department and an increased rate of intensive care unit admissions were determined in hospitalized acute poisoning patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Demographic characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department for intoxication and a time series analysis during the COVID-19 period
    Bongmin Son, Nayoon Kang, Eunah Han, Gina Yu, Junho Cho, Jaiwoog Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Minhong Choa
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the characteristics of acute carbon monoxide poisoning patients who visited the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jun bo Sim, Tae kyu Ahn, Hyun Kim
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(2): 108.     CrossRef
Clinical features related to alcohol co-ingestion of deliberate self-poisoning patients visiting the emergency department
Won Kim Gyu, Jeong Lee Woon, Kim Daehee, Young Lee June, Yun Kim Sang, Jeong Sikyoung, Hong Sungyoup, Hee Woo Seon
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):58-65.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.58
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Alcohol is one of the most commonly co-ingested agents in deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases presenting at the emergency department (ED). The increased impulsivity, aggressiveness, and disinhibition caused by alcohol ingestion may have different clinical features and outcomes in cases of DSP. This study investigates whether alcohol co-ingestion affects the clinical features and outcomes of DSP patients in the ED. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study. We investigated DSP cases who visited our ED from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients were classified into two groups: with (ALC+) or without (ALC–) alcohol co-ingestion. The clinical features of DSP were compared by considering the co-ingestion of alcohol, and the factors related to discharge against medical advice (AMA) of DSP were analyzed. Results: A total of 689 patients were included in the study, with 272 (39.5%) in the ALC+ group. Majority of the ALC+ group patients were middle-aged males (45-54 years old) and arrived at the ED at night. The rate of discharge AMA from ED was significantly higher in the ALC+ group (130; 47.8%) compared to the ALC– group (p=0.001). No significant differences were obtained in the poisoning severity scores between the two groups (p=0.223). Multivariate analysis revealed that alcohol co-ingestion (odds ratio [OR]=1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.98), alert mental status (OR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.17-2.32), past psychiatric history (OR=0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.28), age >65 years (OR=0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.78), and time from event to ED arrival >6 hrs (OR=0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88) were independent predictive factors of discharge AMA (p=0.043, p=0.004, p=0.001, p=0.006, and p=0.010, respectively). Conclusion: Our results determined a high association between alcohol co-ingestion and the outcome of discharge AMA in DSP patients. Emergency physicians should, therefore, be aware that DSP patients who have co-ingested alcohol may be uncooperative and at high risk of discharge AMA.
Up-to-date treatment of acetaminophen poisoning
Phil Chung Sung, Moon Jeongmi, Chun Byeongjo
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(2):39-44.   Published online December 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.2.39
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AbstractAbstract PDF
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is the standard antidote treatment for preventing hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the treatment of AAP poisoning. Several alternative intravenous regimens of NAC have been suggested to improve patient safety by reducing adverse drug reactions and medication errors. A two-bag NAC infusion regimen (200 mg/kg over 4 h, followed by 100 mg/kg over 16 h) is reported to have similar efficacy with significantly reduced adverse reactions compared to the traditional 3-bag regimen. Massive AAP poisoning due to high concentrations (more than 300-lines in the nomogram) needs to be managed with an increased maintenance dose of NAC. In addition to NAC, the combination therapy of hemodialysis and fomepizole is advocated for severe AAP poisoning cases. In the case of a patient presenting with an altered mental status, metabolic acidosis, elevated lactate, and an AAP concentration greater than 900 mg/L, hemodialysis is recommended even if NAC is used. Fomepizole decreases the generation of toxic metabolites by inhibiting CYP2E1 and may be considered an off-label use by experienced clinicians. Since the nomogram cannot be applied to sustained-release AAP formulations, all potentially toxic sustained-release AAP overdoses should receive a full course of NAC regimen. In case of ingesting less than the toxic dose, the AAP concentration is tested twice at an interval of 4 h or more; NAC should be administered if either value is above the 150-line of the nomogram.
Inflammatory cytokines in patients with pesticide poisoning: a pilot study
Hyun Joon Kim, Wook-Joon Kim, Dong Wook Lee, Seung-Hyun Jung, Nam-Jun Cho, Samel Park, Eun Young Lee, Hyo-Wook Gil
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):15-21.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.15
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Acute pesticide poisoning is lethal and can lead to death. A few studies about the effects of acute pesticide poisoning have focused on the immune system. In the current study, we preliminarily investigated the changes in blood inflammatory cytokine levels in acute pesticide poisoning patients. Methods: In this study, we prospectively investigated the inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute pesticide poisoning. This study included patients admitted from February 2021 to November 2021 with a diagnosis of intentional poisoning by pesticide ingestion. The inflammatory cytokines measured were IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Results: Totally, 27 patients were enrolled in this study. The types of pesticide ingested were glufosinate (n=6), glyphosate (n=8), organophosphate (n=4), pyrethroid (n=2), and others (n=7). The levels of inflammatory cytokines obtained were as follows: IFN-γ 2.78±8.03 pg/ml, IL-1β 2.62±2.03 pg/ml, IL-6 44.58±80.16 pg/ml, and TNF-α 11.80±15.60 pg/ml. The overall mortality rate was 11.1% (3/27), and levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in the death group compared to the survival group. Conclusion: Increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in patients with acute pesticide poisoning. IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in the death group as compared to the survival group. Our results indicate the occurrence of an inflammatory response due to the activation of immune cells by pesticide poisoning. Future large-scale studies need to be conducted to investigate the application of inflammatory cytokines as predictors and therapeutic targets.
Comparison of medical history based diagnosis and urine test using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in drug overdose
Ja-Young Lee, Kyungman Cha, Won Jung Jeong, Hyung Min Kim, Byung Hak So
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2022;20(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2022.20.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: In patients with acute drug overdose, identification of drugs ingested is crucial to make a precise diagnosis. In most cases, the diagnoses are made on the medical history and physical examination findings. This study was undertaken to determine the concordance of diagnosis made on the basis of patient history by comparing it with urine toxicology analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective study of drug intoxicated patients over 18 years old who presented to the emergency center from 2017 to 2019. Specimens from urine were tested using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). The test results were compared with information obtained from patients. Diagnostic concordances for drug detection in intoxicated patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy. Results: Totally, 370 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 66 types of drugs were detected by UPLC-TMS. The drugs detected most frequently were zolpidem (104, 27.8%), citalopram (70, 18.7%), and paracetamol (66, 17.6%). The mean diagnostic concordance of patients was 52.7%. There were statistically significant diagnostic discrepancies in patients with underlying depression and patients intoxicated with multiple types of drugs. Conclusion: In ED patients with acute drug overdose, the diagnoses made on history alone were often inaccurate. It is essential to perform urine toxicology tests such as UPLC-TMS as a confirmatory instrument to improve accuracy in evaluating patients with drug intoxication.
Assessment of early nutritional state in critical patients with intoxication and the effect of nutritional status on prognosis
Dong-wan Ko, Sangcheon Choi, Young-gi Min, Hyuk jin Lee, Eun Jung Park
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):93-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.93
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Purpose: Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. Results: 155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. Conclusion: NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.
The Prognosis of Glyphosate herbicide intoxicated patients according to their salt types
Min Gyu Jeong, Kyoung Tak Keum, Seongjun Ahn, Yong Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Kwang Won Cho, Seong Youn Hwang, Dong Woo Lee
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2021;19(2):83-92.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22537/jksct.2021.19.2.83
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose: Glyphosate herbicide (GH) is a widely used herbicide and has been associated with significant mortality as poisoned cases increases. One of the reasons for high toxicity is thought to be toxic effect of its ingredient with glyphosate. This study was designed to determine differences in the clinical course with the salt-type contained in GH. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a single hospital between January 2013 and December 2017. We enrolled GH-poisoned patients visited the emergency department. According to salt-type, patients were divided into 4 groups: isopropylamine (IPA), ammonium (Am), potassium (Po), and mixed salts (Mi) groups. The demographics, laboratory variables, complications, and their mortality were analyzed to determine clinical differences associated with each salt-type. Addtionally, we subdivided patients into survivor and non-survivor groups for investigating predictive factors for the mortality. Results: Total of 348 GH-poisoned patients were divided as follows: IPA 248, Am 41, Po 10, and Mi 49 patients. There was no difference in demographic or underlying disease history, but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was low in Po group. The ratio of intentional ingestion was higher in Po and Mi groups. Metabolic acidosis and relatively high lactate level were presented in Po group. As the primary outcome, the mortality rates were as follows: IPA, 26 (10.5%); Am, 2 (4.9%); Po, 1 (10%); and Mi, 1 (2%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality and the incidence of complications. Additionally, age, low SBP, low pH, corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed as independent predictors for mortality in a regression analysis. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in their complications and the mortality across the GH-salt groups in this study.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality after acute herbicide (glyphosate and/or glufosinate) intoxication: propensity score matching approach
    Seung Woo Lee, Won-joon Jeong, Seung Ryu, Yongchul Cho, Yeonho You, Jung Soo Park, Changshin Kang, Hong Joon Ahn, So Young Jeon, Jinwoong Lee
    Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology.2023; 21(1): 17.     CrossRef

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology