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JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology

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Volume 13(1); 2015
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Effect of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion in the Patient with Acute Poisoning : A Systematic Review
Jinwoo Myung, Dong Ryul Ko, Taeyoung Kong, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):1-10.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsion as well as adverse events in acute poisoning patients. Methods: Literature was accessed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of science, and KoreaMed. All forms of literatures relevant to human use of intravenous lipid emulsion for acute poisoning were included. Cases reports or letters without description of clinical outcomes for each case were excluded. The literature search was conducted by two investigators in March, 2015, with publication language restricted to English and Korean. The effect, onset time, and adverse event of lipid emulsion and final outcome of each case were analyzed. Results: Eighty-one published articles were included, excluding articles whose title and abstract were not relevant to this study. No articles were classified as high level of evidence. Sixty-eight case reports were identified, consisting of 25 local anesthetics and 43 other drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants and calcium channel blockers. Although most cases described significant clinical improvements, some of them showed no beneficial effect or worsening of clinical course. Several adverse events including hyperamylasemia and laboratory interference were reported. Conclusion: Although there were many case reports illustrating successful use of lipid for various drug poisonings, the effect cannot be estimated due to significant possibility of publication bias. Therefore, lipids might be considered in severe hemodynamic instability resulting from lipophilic drug poisoning, however further studies should follow to establish the use of lipid as the standard of care.
The Clinical Characteristics for Emergency Endotracheal Intubation in Acute Drug Intoxication
Eol Han, Hyun Soo Chung, Yoo Seok Park, Je Sung You, Youngseon Joo, Taeyoung Kong, Incheol Park, Sung phil Chung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):11-18.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics in emergency endotracheal intubation between patients with acute drug intoxication and medical disease. Methods: Data for airway registry collected in two emergency departments (ED) between April 2006 and March 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The airway registry data included patient's demographic information and variables such as Cormack-Lehane grade, 3-3-2 finger analysis, success rate, the number of attempts at intubation, complications of intubation, and clinical outcomes after intubation. Results: A total of 1480 patients were enrolled; 62 patients were classified as belonging to the intubation group after the drug intoxication group. No significant differences in Cormack-Lehane grade, 3-3-2 finger analysis, success rate, the number of attempts at intubation, and complications after intubation were observed between patients with acute drug intoxication and medical disease. However, significant difference was observed for indication of emergency endotracheal intubation. While emergency endotracheal intubations were usually performed in medical patients because of failure of airway patency, they were performed in intoxicated patients with the goal of preventing serious complications. Conclusion: Anatomical structures related to endotracheal intubation, the process and clinical outcome of intoxicated patients are not significantly different from those for medical patients.
Effect of Alcohol on Death Rate in Organophosphate Poisoned Patients
Yong Hun Min, Seung Min Park, Kui Ja Lee, Young Taeck Oh, Hee Cheol Ahn, You Dong Sohn, Ji Yun Ahn, Young Hwan Lee, Sang Ook Ha, Yu Jung Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):19-24.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Purpose: Many patients who are acutely poisoned with organophosphorus pesticides have co-ingested alcohol. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mortality in organophosphate intoxication and the differences between alcohol coingested patients and non-coingested patients, looking at vital signs, length of admission, cholinesterase activity, complications, and mortality. Methods: All patients visiting one Emergency Department (ED) with organophosphate intoxication between January 2000 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups, alcohol coingested group and non-coingested group. Results: During the study period, 136 patients (alcohol coingested group, 95 patients; non-coingested group, 41 patients) presented to the ED with organophosphate intoxication. Seventy-one alcohol coingested patients (74.1%) vs. 16 non-coingested patients (39.0%) received endotracheal intubation, with results of the analysis showing a clear distinction between the two groups (p=0.001). Twenty-three alcohol coingested patients (24.2%) vs. 1 non-coingested patient (2.4%) required inotropics, indicating a significant gap (p=0.002). Twenty-eight alcohol coingested patients (29.5%) vs. 2 non-coingested patients (4.9%) died, with results of the analysis showing a clear distinction between the two groups (p=0.002). Conclusion: In cases of organophosphate intoxication, alcohol coingested patients tended to receive endotracheal intubation, went into shock, developed central nervous system complications, and more died.
The Factors Affecting the Registration Rates for Emergency Department Based Post-suicidal Care Program
Junchul Lee, Hyung Goo Kang, Changsun Kim, Jaehoon Oh, Taeho Lim, Dong Hyun Ahn, Jung Im Lee, Min Hee Park, Kyung Hee Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):25-32.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent factors associated with the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted between March and December 2013 at the academic ED at the tertiary urban hospital. During the study period, the pre-designed registry was recorded. The variables examined included the following: patients' demographic data (Sex, age, address, type of insurance, marital status, level of education, and history of previous psychiatric disease), suicide-related data (suicidal methods, combined drink of alcohol and number of previous attempts), and management-related data (disposition at ED, physician's training level, etc.). Univariated and multivariated logistic regression analyses were performed for identification of factors affecting the registration rate for the community-based post suicidal care program. Results: A total of 163 suicides were included during the study period. Of these, 33 (20.2%) patients were registered in the post-suicide care program. Factors including a patient's address (OR: 14.92, 95% CI: 3.606-61.711), immediate intervention by psychiatric healthcare center (OR: 5.05, CI: 1.688-15.134), admissions in hospital (OR: 3.69, CI: 1.286-10.605), and history of previous psychiatric disease (OR: 3.52, CI: 1.216-10.201) showed significant association with registration for the program. Conclusion: The community-based post-suicidal care program, which is available 24 hours a day, should be operated in each district in order to increase the registration rate. Emergency physicians should actively consider the inpatient treatment program for suicidal patients and strongly recommend registration to the program, particularly for patients without previous history of psychiatric disease.
Acute Pneumonitis Induced by Intravenous Thinner Injection in a Case of Suicidal Attempt
Hae Ji Lee, Byung Ho Choi, Mi Jin Kim, Jung Seok Hong
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):33-35.   Published online June 30, 2015
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A 24 year-old man attempted suicide by injection of 1 cc of thinner into his left antecubital vein; 3 hours later, he visited our emergency room because of left chest pain. We suspected a chemical pneumonitis based on the abnormal findings of his chest X-ray and computed tomography. On the 3rd day after admission, a cellulitis also occurred at the injection area. His symptoms were relieved after supportive care for 2 weeks. There is significant experience with intoxication of thinner inhalation, whereas intoxication of intravenous thinner is rare.
Acute Respiratory Failure due to Fatal Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning : A Case Report
Gun Bea Kim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):36-39.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Copper sulfate is a copper compound used widely in the chemical and agriculture industries. Most intoxication occurs in developing countries of Southeast Asia particularly India, but rarely occurs in Western countries. The early symptoms of intoxication are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, and the most distinguishable clue is bluish vomiting. The clinical signs of copper sulfate intoxication can vary according to the amount ingested. A 75-year old man came to our emergency room because he had taken approximately 250 ml copper sulfate per oral. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 14 and vital signs were blood pressure 173/111 mmHg, pulse rate 24 bpm, respiration rate 24 bpm, and body temperature $36.1^{circ}$ .... Arterial blood gas analysis (ABGa) showed mild hypoxemia and just improved after 2 L/min oxygen supply via nasal cannula. Other laboratory tests and chest CT scan showed no clinical significance. Three hours later, the patient's mental status showed sudden deterioration (GCS 11), and ABGa showed hypercarbia. He was arrested and his spontaneous circulation returned after 8 minutes CPR. However, 22 minutes later, he was arrested again and returned after 3 minutes CPR. The family did not want additional resuscitation, so that he died 5 hours after ED visit. In my knowledge, early deaths are the consequence of shock, while late mortality is related to renal and hepatic failure. However, as this case shows, consideration of early definite airway preservation is reasonable in a case of supposed copper sulfate intoxication, because the patients can show rapid deterioration even when serious clinical manifestation are not presented initially.
A Case of Chlorfluazuron Insectisides Poisoning with Mental Change
Eun Suk Park, Soo Kang, Ah Jin Kim, Jin Hue Baek, Hyun Min Jung
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):40-42.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Benzoylureas are chemical compounds best known for their use as insecticides. Diflubenzuron is one of the more commonly used benzoylurea pesticides. Others include chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, and triflumuron. They act as insect growth regulators by inhibiting synthesis of chitin in the body of the insect. They have low toxicity in mammals because mammals have no chitin. Chlorfluazuron insecticides, which are mixed with solvent naphatha, are commonly used. Thus we assume that in the presented case mental change outcome of poisoning was connected with toxic effects of solvent naphtha rather than with chlorfluazuron action. Components of solvent naphtha, particularly trimethylbenzenes, exert strong irritant action on the gastric mucosa and are very well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. We report on a 67-year-old man with stuporous mentality after intentional ingestion of approximately 200 ml of liquid chlorfluazuron in a suicide attempt. He was discharged after conservative treatments including gastric irrigation, charcoal, mechanical ventilation, hydration, and antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia without complications.
A Case Report of a First Sulfoximine Class of Insecticide, Sulfoxaflor Poisoning
Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang, Tae Ho Lim, Sanghyun Lee, Chiwon Ahn
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):43-45.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Sulfoxaflor is the first insecticide belonging to the sulfoximine class and is efficient against sap-feeding insects that are resistant to other insecticides. Sulfoxaflor acts as a neurotoxin to the central nervous system of insects compared with very low toxicity to mammalian. We report on a case of a 67-year-old male who ingested insecticide and received conservative treatment for mild metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Motor Peripheral Neuropathy Involved Bilateral Lower Extremities Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Case Report
Jae-Hyung Choi, Hoon Lim
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):46-49.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. Following are brief statements describing the motor peripheral neuropathy involved bilateral lower extremities of a patient who recovered following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. After inhalation of smoke from a fire, a 60-year-old woman experienced bilateral leg weakness without edema or injury. Neurological examination showed diplegia and deep tendon areflexia in lower limbs. There was no sensory deficit in lower extremities, and no cognitive disturbances were detected. Creatine kinase was normal. Electroneuromyogram patterns were compatible with the diagnosis of bilateral axonal injury. Clinical course after normobaric oxygen and rehabilitation therapy was marked by complete recovery of neurological disorders. Peripheral neuropathy is an unusual complication of CO intoxication. Motor peripheral neuropathy involvement of bilateral lower extremities is exceptional. Various mechanisms have been implicated, including nerve compression secondary to rhabdomyolysis, nerve ischemia due to hypoxia, and direct nerve toxicity of carbon monoxide. Prognosis is commonly excellent without sequelae. Emergency physicians should understand the possible-neurologic presentations of CO intoxication and make a proper decision regarding treatment.
A Case of Podostroma Cornu-Damae Intoxication Induced Pancytopenia and Skin Desquamation: Successful Treatment with Granulocyte Colony Stimulation Factor (G-CFS)
Jung Seok Kim, Gyu Won Kim, Jae Il Chung, Myoung Ki Sim, Ki Chul Yoon, Yong Hoon Choi, Ha Ram Yi, In Zoo Choi, Chan Sup Shim, Joung Ho Han
J Korean Soc Clin Toxicol. 2015;13(1):50-54.   Published online June 30, 2015
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Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare species of fungus belonging to the Hyocreaceae family. Its fruit body is highly toxic, as it contains trichothecene mycotoxins. The morphology is similar to that of immature Ganoderma lucidum, making identification difficult for non-experts. We experienced such a case of a 56- year-old male who picked and consumed podostroma cornu-damae, and consumed. Later that day, he developed digestive system symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. He presented to the emergency room (ER), there were no abnormal physical findings, symptoms improved after gastric lavage, and the patient voluntarily discharged himself on the same day. The following day, as the symptoms gradually deteriorated, he was admitted via the ER. He was presented with severe pancytopenia, alopecia, desquamation of skin, and acute renal failure. He recovered without any complications after conservative care, antibiotics therapy, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration. The most commonly reported complications of podostroma cornu-damae intoxication were reported pancytopenia, infection, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, etc. since Prevention is especially important because its toxicity can be lethal and there is no particular treatment to date, prevention is especially important. Promotion and education for the public are needed.

JKSCT : Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology